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Table 3 Meta-analysis of parental predictors of child unhealthy food consumption (23 unique studies included)

From: The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Predictors

K

N

Effect Size

95% CI

Q

Low

High

Restrictive Guidance

15

14539

−.11**

−.17

−.04

193.800***

Active Guidance

2

1142

−.04

−.24

.17

10.664***

Availability

6

3421

.34***

.21

.46

56.146***

Accessibility

Modeling

5

1593

.35***

.22

.47

28.800***

Pressure to eat

9

8686

.04*

.00

.08

17.856*

Rewarding food consumption

3

2569

.06

−.04

.15

8.939**

Reward with verbal praise

4

3381

−.04*

−.07

−.01

2.744

Food as reward

4

1644

.14*

.03

.25

7.137

  1. Effect size calculations were based on random effects model
  2. K number of studies, N total sample size for all studies, Effect Size Pearson’s r, CI confidence interval, Q heterogeneity in effect sizes between studies
  3. *p < .05, **p < .01, *** p < = .001