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Table 3 Meta-analysis of parental predictors of child unhealthy food consumption (23 unique studies included)

From: The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Predictors K N Effect Size 95% CI Q
Low High
Restrictive Guidance 15 14539 −.11** −.17 −.04 193.800***
Active Guidance 2 1142 −.04 −.24 .17 10.664***
Availability 6 3421 .34*** .21 .46 56.146***
Accessibility
Modeling 5 1593 .35*** .22 .47 28.800***
Pressure to eat 9 8686 .04* .00 .08 17.856*
Rewarding food consumption 3 2569 .06 −.04 .15 8.939**
Reward with verbal praise 4 3381 −.04* −.07 −.01 2.744
Food as reward 4 1644 .14* .03 .25 7.137
  1. Effect size calculations were based on random effects model
  2. K number of studies, N total sample size for all studies, Effect Size Pearson’s r, CI confidence interval, Q heterogeneity in effect sizes between studies
  3. *p < .05, **p < .01, *** p < = .001