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Table 2 Summary model results

From: Prevalence, trajectories, and determinants of television viewing time in an ethnically diverse sample of young children from the UK

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Estimate (95% C.I.) Estimate (95% C.I.) Estimate (95% C.I.) Estimate (95% C.I.)
Constant 0.921 (0.848, 0.995)   −0.578 (−0.862, −0.294) 0.099 (−0.085, 0.283)
Fixed Effects
 Age −0.026 (−0.048, −0.004)   −0.015 (−0.042, 0.012) −0.054 (−0.081, −-0.027)
 Age2 0.006 (0.004, 0.008)   0.006 (0.004, 0.008) 0.006 (0.004, −0.008)
 Age3 −0.00012 (−0.00016, −0.00008)   −0.00011 (−0.00015, −0.00008) −0.00011 (−0.00015, −0.00008)
 Hours TV on in the home   0.067 (0.055, 0.079) 0.041 (0.027, 0.055) 0.020 (0.004, 0.036)
 Mother TV-time   0.205 (0.187, 0.223) 0.192 (0.168, 0.216) 0.135 (0.104, 0.167)
 Mother TV attitude a   0.426 (0.314, 0.538) 0.249 (0.131, 0.367) 0.277 (0.167, 0.387)
Ethnicity (ref: White British)
 Pakistani   0.224 (0.129, 0.319) 0.219 (0.072, 0.366) 0.103 (−0.060, 0.266)
 Other   0.155 (0.015, −0.295) 0.069 (−0.154, 0.292) −0.007 (−0.262, 0.248)
Country Birth (ref: UK)   
 Pakistan   0.247 (0.147, 0.346) 0.149 (0.008, 0.290) −0.025 (−0.194, 0.144)
 Other   0.148 (−0.006, 0.302) 0.170 (−0.083, 0.423) 0.137 (−0.153, 0.427)
 In most deprived IMD quintile   0.166 (0.071, 0.260) 0.053 (−0.065, 0.171)  
 No previous children   0.148 (0.056, 0.240) 0.072 (−0.042, 0.186) 0.098 (0.002, 0.194)
 Child BMI at 24 months (z score)   −0.062 (−0.107, −0.018) 0.008 (−0.043, 0.059)  
 Mother psychological stress (12 months) scored 4 or more.   0.06 (0.011, 0.109) 0.148 (0.042, 0.254) 0.133 (0.035, 0.231)
Interactions
 Age*Mother TV-time    0.004 (0.002, 0.006)
 Age*TV on in the home    0.001 (0.001, 0.001)
 Age*Pakistani ethnicity    0.012 (0.004, 0.020)
 Age* Other ethnicity    0.005 (−0.009, 0.019)
 Age*Pakistan born    0.014 (0.004, 0.024)
 Age* Other non UK born    0.009 (−0.007, 0.026)
Random effects
 Uj(1) Random slope 0.385 0.254 0.254 0.228
 Uj(2) Random intercept 0.001 0.0004 0.0004 0.0005
 eij Between occasion 1.11 1.047 1.047 1.041
 Total variance 1.496 1.3014 1.3014 1.269
 Variance between children 26% 20% 20% 18%
 Variance within children 74% 80% 80% 82%
  1. Model 1: average trajectories of child TV viewing by age with a random effect for age along with age squared and age cubed to allow the modelling of non-linear trends
  2. Model 2: reporting the coefficients from a series of univariate models considering each covariate independently
  3. Model 3: as model 1 but with the inclusion of all covariates together in a multivariate model
  4. Model 4: final model derived, as model 1 with all significant covariates and interaction terms in a multivariate model. This is the model used to estimate predicted child TV viewing
  5. Variance between children is the percentage of variance in the outcome attributable to differences between children; variance within children is the percentage of variance attributable to change over time within children
  6. All covariates are time invariant apart from mother TV time which was measured at each survey wave
  7. BMI Body Mass Index, IMD Index of Multiple Deprivation
  8. aMother TV attitude: not agree that it is important that child not watch too much TV