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Table 7 Effect of electronic entertainment and communication device use during the day and access and use in the bedroom during the hour before sleep on sleep quality and sleep efficiency in grade 5 children

From: The use of entertainment and communication technologies before sleep could affect sleep and weight status: a population-based study among children

  Good sleep quality Very good sleep efficiency (≥95%)
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) aAdjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) aAdjusted OR (95% CI)
TV
 No access and no use bRef Ref Ref Ref
 Access but never used 1.09 (1.01, 1.19) 1.01 (0.93, 1.11) 1.93 (1.56, 2.39) 1.45 (1.13, 1.85)
 Access and frequently used 0.90 (0.84, 0.97) 0.86 (0.80, 0.94) 0.58 (0.50, 0.66) 0.46 (0.39, 0.56)
Computer
 No access and no use Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Access but never used 0.82 (0.75, 0.90) 0.73 (0.67, 0.80) 0.77 (0.65, 0.91) 0.83 (0.69, 0.98)
 Access and frequently used 0.83 (0.75, 0.91) 0.72 (0.65, 0.80) 1.19 (0.98, 1.44) 0.96 (0.79, 1.18)
Tablet
 No access and no use Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Access but never used 0.84 (0.76, 0.93) 0.79 (0.71, 0.87) 0.97 (0.81, 1.15) 0.58 (0.48, 0.71)
 Access and frequently used 0.87 (0.81, 0.95) 0.82 (0.76, 0.89) 0.55 (0.46, 0.65) 0.49 (0.42, 0.58)
Video Games
 No access and no use Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Access but never used 0.86 (0.79, 0.93) 0.80 (0.74, 0.87) 0.74 (0.61, 0.89) 0.91 (0.76, 1.10)
 Access and frequently used 0.99 (0.90, 1.09) 0.87 (0.79, 0.97) 0.55 (0.48, 0.64) 0.49 (0.41, 0.59)
Cell Phone
 No access and no use Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Access but never used 0.84 (0.78, 0.90) 0.73 (0.69, 0.80) 0.84 (0.78, 0.90) 0.56 (0.49, 0.65)
 Access and frequently used 0.67 (0.61, 0.74) 0.64 (0.58, 0.71) 0.67 (0.61, 0.74) 0.48 (0.41, 0.57)
At least one device
 No access and no use Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Access but never used 1.10 (0.99, 1.22) 0.97 (0.87, 1.08) 1.29 (1.01 1.65) 1.06 (0.82, 1.37)
 Access and frequently used 0.96 (0.88, 1.05) 0.87 (0.79, 0.95) 0.59 (0.48, 0.72) 0.52 (0.42, 0.63)
Reading
 No access and frequent reading Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Access but frequent reading 0.99 (0.92, 1.06) 0.87 (0.81, 0.94) 0.62 (0.52, 0.75) 0.66 (0.55, 0.80)
 Access and rarely reading 0.61 (0.56, 0.67) 0.57 (0.52, 0.63) 0.36 (0.29, 0.43) 0.33 (0.27, 0.40)
 No access and rarely reading 0.95 (0.83, 1.08) 0.86 (0.76, 0.99) 0.57 (0.44, 0.76) 0.77 (0.58, 1.03)
  1. aAdjusted for gender of the child, household income, region of elementary school, highest level of parental education and total daily exposure to electronic entertainment and communication devices
  2. bReference category