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Table 3 Likelihood of selecting a product with a health-related claim

From: A systematic review, and meta-analyses, of the impact of health-related claims on dietary choices

First author (year) Outcome measure Comment Forced choice? Product category Claim sub-type (nutrient/target - health relationship) Results: OR (95% confidence intervals) Support the hypothesis?
Ares (2010) [27] Part-worth utilities: multinomial logit regression. Cluster analysis. Cluster 1 more diet and health concerned than cluster 2. Yes Yogurt. RDR (fibre - cancer), (antioxidants - heart disease + cancer). C1: 1.28 (1.06, 1.56) Y
C2: 1.38 (1.11, 1.71)
Aschemann-Witzel [28](2010) Proportion of products that carry claims & chosen. OR calculated from the number of choices of a product with a claim and the number of expected choices of products with a claim, if the claim was chosen at random. No Yogurt, muesli, pasta. HCs: NOF (calcium + vitamin D - bones/teeth), (folic acid - mental function), (fibre - bowel function), RDR (calcium + vitamin D - osteoporosis), (folic acid - dementia), (fibre - cancer). 1.21 (0.98, 1.43) Y
Aschemann-Witzel (2013) [29] Percentage products with claim chosen (number of choices) . As Aschemann-Witzel (2010). No Yogurt, breakfast cereal, pasta. NCs: Ncon (calcium, vitamin D), NOF (calcium, vitamin D - osteoporosis, Ncon (folic acid), NOF (folic acid - brain/mental functions). 1.10 (0.87, 1.32) Y
Barreiro-Hurle (2010) [30] Coefficient: random parameter logit. Same population tested both products. No Pork Frankfurter sausage. Ncon (fat) 1.67 (1.48, 1.87) Y
  RDR (CVD) 1.97 (1.74, 2.24)
  Ncon (fat) & RDR (CVD) 0.58 (0.49, 0.69)
Yogurt. RDR (CVD) 1.25 (1.21, 1.28)
Casini (2014) [33] Parameter estimates: conditional logit model. Average of NOF and RDR used for meta-analysis as same products and population. No Olive oil. NOF (polyphenols - oxidative stress) 1.44, (1.29, 1.60)* Y + N
RDR (polyphenols - cholesterol) 1.23 (1.09, 1.39)*
Average 1.33 (1.19, 1.49)
HRIC (polyphenol) 0.88 (0.77, 1.01)
Contini (2015) [35] Parameter estimates: latent class model. Average used as same product, population, and claim-sub type No Olive oil. RDR (polyphenols - blood lipids) 1.41 (1.27, 1.57)* Y
RDR (olive oil - CHD) 1.66 (1.54, 1.80)*
RDR (olive oil - blood lipids) 1.70 (1.52, 1.89)*
Average 1.58 (1.44, 1.75)
De Marchi (2016) [45] Parameter estimates: random parameter logit with an error component. Results adjusted for time preferences. Interaction terms not included. No Yogurt. RDR (saturated fat & cholesterol - heart disease) 1.25 (1.13, 1.38) Y
de-Magistris (2016) [36] Parameter estimates: Random Parameters Logit model. . No. Cheese. Ncom (fat) 2.23 (0.01, 570.66)  
Ncom (sodium) 0.56 (39.38, 0.01)
Fernández-Polanco (2013) [37] Coefficients: conditional logit model, (+WTP). Was not included in meta-analyses as SE not reported. No Fish (seabream). Ncon (omega-3) 1.63 Y
Gracia (2009) [38] Coefficient: Parameters Logit model. Interaction terms not included. No Breakfast cookies. Ncon 1.46 (1.21, 1.75) Y
Krystallis (2012) [42] Coefficient (+WTP). Averaged by product as same population and same claim sub-types. No Crisps. Ncon (calcium) 2.31 (1.07, 5.00)* Y + N
Ncon (vitamins) 1.86 (0.92, 3.75)*
Ncon (omega-3 fatty acids) 0.77 (0.39, 1.49)*
Ncon (fibres) 1.54 (0.75, 3.18)*
Average 1.50 (0.73, 3.07)
Croissant. Ncon (calcium) 1.31 (0.85, 2.00)*
Ncon (vitamins) 1.44 (0.99, 2.09)*
Ncon (omega-3 fatty acids) 0.74 (0.51, 1.07)*
Ncon (fibres) 0.83 (0.56, 1.22)*
Average 1.04 (0.70, 1.53)
Loose (2013) [44] Aggregated multinomial logit model/part worth utility estimates   No Oysters. Logo (Heart tick) 1.11 (1.08, 1.13) Y
Maubach (2014) [46] Hazard ratio: binominial logit regression. OR for health claim scaled by OR for ‘no claim’. Results for NC not included.
Interactions not included
Yes Breakfast cereal. RDR (wholegrain - cholesterol) 1.17 (1.13, 1.22) Y
McLean (2012) [47] Utility: multinomial logit regression (no FoP label model used) 600 participants 300 with hypertension,
300 without.
Recruited from same database
Averaged by product as same population and same claim sub type.
Yes Low sodium Baked beans. Ncom (sodium) 0.66 (0.53, 0.83)* Y + N
Ncon (sodium) 1.55 (1.22, 1.97)*
Average 1.11 (0.88, 1.45)
High sodium baked beans. Ncom (sodium) 1.21 (0.94, 1.55)
Mohebalian (2012) [48] Odds ratio Cluster analysis No Fruit juice. NOF (antioxidants - immune system). C1: 1.98 (1.51, 2.59) Y
C2: 1.63 (1.18, 2.24)
C3: 2.50 (2.2.4, 2.79)
C4: 1.72 (1.44, 2.06)
Mohebalian (2013) [49] Coefficient Different populations for each product. Results adjusted for demographic characteristics. Yes Elderberry jelly. NOF (antioxidants - immune system). 1.96 (1.52, 2.52) Y
Elderberry juice. NOF (antioxidants - immune system). 1.71 (1.31, 2.25)
Moon (2011) [50] Rating: willingness to try 5 point scale Different populations for each claim. No Soy foods. RDR (protein - heart disease) FDA approved. 1.48 (1.32, 1.66) Y
RDR (protein - heart disease) Not FDA approved. 1.52 (1.35, 1.71)
Van Wezemael (2014) [54] Parameter estimates: error component model (best fit) (+multinomial logit model, +WTP) Average by claim sub-type, same product, results by country. No Lean beef steak. Ncon (iron), Ncon (fat), Ncon (protein). NL: 3.42 (2.50, 4.69) Y
BE: 2.98 (2.17, 4.10)
FR: 3.61 (2.61, 5.00)
UK: 3.06 (2.18, 4.30)
NOF (iron - cognitive function), NOF (saturated fat - cholesterol), NOF (protein - muscle). NL: 5.68 (4.06, 7.95)
BE: 4.08 (3.00, 5.56)
FR: 4.60 (3.38, 6.26)
UK: 3.06 (2.37, 3.97)
  1. Abbreviations: HC Health claim, NC Nutrient claim, HRIC health-related ingredient claim, Ncon nutrient content, Ncom nutrient comparative claim
  2. NOF nutrient and other function, RDR reduction disease risk, CVD cardiovascular disease, CHD coronary heart disease, FDA USA Food and Drug Administration, C# cluster/class
  3. Forced choice: No = participants were able to select neither products/no buy option
  4. Where multiple OR are given, the *OR was NOT used in the meta-analyses