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Table 4 Multivariable mixed effects model examining estimated effect on students’ baseline MVPA and MVPA trajectories adjusting for study condition, student characteristics, and school neighbourhood characteristics

From: Examining the impact of a province-wide physical education policy on secondary students’ physical activity as a natural experiment

Accelerometer data Fixed effect (95% CI) P value
Estimated effect on baseline MVPA (minutes/day)
Study condition
 Comparison (Alberta) Referent 0.0799
 Intervention (Manitoba) 8.23 (−0.98, 17.43)  
Baseline age 0.58 (−1.83, 2.99) 0.6366
Sex
 Male Referent <.0001
 Female −11.09 (−14.16, −8.02)  
BMI status
 Healthy weight Referent  
 Overweight or obese 0.02 (−4.07, 4.12) 0.9898
 Missing −0.57 (−5.33, 4.20) 0.8150
School rural/urban
 Urban Referent 0.5982
 Rural −1.85 (−8.72, 5.03)  
School socioeconomic status   
 High Referent 0.0048
 Low −10.24 (−17.35, −3.14)  
Estimated effect on MVPA trajectories (minutes/day per semester)
Study condition   
 Comparison Referent 0.1243
 Intervention −1.52 (−3.47, 0.42)  
Baseline age −0.62 (−1.38, 0.15) 0.1143
Sex   
 Male Referent 0.2846
 Female 0.55 (−0.46, 1.57)  
BMI status
 Healthy weight Referent  
 Overweight or obese −0.40 (−1.83, 1.04) 0.5858
 Missing −0.18 (−1.42, 1.07) 0.7792
School rural/urban
 Urban Referent 0.4673
 Rural 0.47 (−0.80, 1.74)  
School socioeconomic status
 High Referent 0.0013
 Low 2.13 (0.83, 3.43)  
  1. Note: Fixed effects of intercepts for each model are not shown. 95% confidence intervals are shown in parentheses. Referent categories are identified as “Referent”