Skip to main content

Table 3 Eight systems and 165 factors influencing PA and SB in ethnic minority populations (Study populations and references in bold are quantitative)

From: Systematic mapping review of the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in ethnic minority groups in Europe: a DEDIPAC study

Health & health communication Study population [ref] Political environment Study population [ref] Social & cultural environment Study population [ref] Psychosocial Study population [ref] Institutional environment Study population [ref] Physical environment & opportunity Study population [ref] Social & material resources Study population [ref] Migration context Study population [ref]
Health conditions n = 7
Surinamese, & Indian [23] South Asian [25,26,27] Pakistani & Indian [31] Asian [40] Multiethnic [47]
Local Political orientation n = 3
Muslim [18,19,20]
Gender n = 23
South Asian [5] Muslim [18,19,20, 28] General [21] African, Asian [22] Surinamese & Indian [23] Pakistani [24] South Asian [25,26,27, 34] Diverse [29, 35,36,37,38,39] Turkish [30] Pakistani & Indian [31] Moroccan [32] South Asian & Caribbean [33]
Knowledge of PA and Health n = 16
North African [4] South Asian [5] Muslim [19, 20] Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [26, 40] Diverse [45] Pakistani [50] Turkish & Moroccan [52] General[54] Middle East [55] South Asian [61] Asian [62] General[63] Immigrants [64]
Demands of curriculum n = 3
Muslim [19] Diverse [29] Diverse [45]
Sports facilities available n = 11
South Asian [5] South Asian [18, 26, 27, 34] Diverse [29] Pakistani & Indian [31] Diverse [45] Multiethnic [47] Pakistani [50] Multiethnic [67]
Practicalities/responsibilities n = 10
Pakistani [24] South Asian [26, 27, 40, 52] Muslim [28] Pakistani & Indian [31] Minority [42] Mixed [45] Sami [76]
Language n = 9
South Asian [25,26,27, 40, 49, 52] South Asian [54] Mixed [71, 72]
Physical health n = 4
South Asian [26] Pakistani & Indian [31] South Asian [49] Pakistani [65]
Health care system adaptation n = 2
Multiethnic [47] South Asian [58]
Religious requirements n = 9
Muslim [20] South Asian [26, 34, 40, 41] Pakistani, Indian, [31] General [37] [40, 41] Diverse [42] Diverse [43]
Self-image n = 11
Muslim [20] Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [26, 49, 52, 58] Asian [27] Multiethnic [47] Pakistani [50, 65] Turkish & Moroccan [53]
Head teacher’s attitude and resources n = 3
Muslim [18–20]
Lack of appropriate activities n = 10
South Asian [5, 61] Muslim [18] South Asian [26, 27, 40] immigrant [39] Minority [42] African [62] Pakistani [65]
Time constraints n = 7
South Asian [5] South Asian [27, 40] Mixed [29] Pakistani & Indian [31] Immigrant [39] Pakistani [50]
Acculturation n = 6
Mixed [21, 72] Turkish [30] Minority [42] Turkish & Moroccan [53] Turkish [59]
Religious fasting n = 3
Muslim [19] South Asian [26, 27]
National political orientation n = 1
Muslim [18]
Religion and culture n = 8
South Asian [5] Muslim [18, 20] South Asian [26] Minority [43] General [44] Diverse [45] Mixed [46]
Knowledge of PA n = 9
Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [26, 40, 58] Pakistani & Indian [31]
Pakistani [50,65] Middle East [55] African [62]
Priorities in school n = 2
Diverse [29] South Asian [41]
Lack of culturally sensitive facilities n = 7
Muslim [18, 19] South Asian [26, 27, 39, 52] Pakistani [31]
Occupation n = 5
Pakistani & Indian [31] Immigrant [39] Multiethnic [47] Multiethnic [67] Mixed [72]
Country of birth n = 5
Mixed [21,44, 46, 71, 75]
Healthcare support n = 3
South Asian [26, 49, 58]
   Commitments within family n = 8
Muslim [20, 48] Pakistani [24] South Asian [27, 40] Pakistani & Indian [31] Immigrant [39] Multiethnic [47]
Dangers of environments and strangers n = 7
South Asian [5] Pakistani [24] South Asian [26, 27, 34] Pakistani & Indian [31] [34] Mixed [45]
Exam pressure n = 2
Muslim [20] Diverse[29]
Expenses n = 6
Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [27, 34, 41] Diverse [45] South Asian [61]
Education n = 4
Turkish [30] Immigrant [39] Iraqi [63] Multiethnic [67]
Racial harassment n = 4
South Asian [27, 40] Minority [42] South Asian [54]
Mental health n = 2
South Asian [70] Pakistani [65]
,
   Modesty n = 8
South Asian [5] Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [26, 27, 40, 49] Pakistani & Indian [31] Immigrant [38]
Ideas of ideal body n = 6
South Asian [40, 41] Multiethnic [47] South Asian [54,61] African [62]
Occupational PA n = 2
South Asian [27] Turkish [59]
Religious dress requirements n = 6
Muslim [18, 20] African- Caribbean, Asian & South Asian [22] South Asian [27, 40] Immigrant [38]
Financial limitations n = 4
South Asian [5] General[21] Immigrant [39] Multiethnic [67]
Time since migration n = 4
Mixed [21, 72] South Asian & Surinamese [73] Tunisian [74]
Pain n = 2
South Asian [26, 49]
   Women as caregiver/mother n = 7
South Asian [5] South Asian [26, 27, 40] Minority [42] Mixed [46] Muslim [48]
Confidence level n = 6
South Asian [26, 49, 58] Pakistani [50,65] Turkish & Moroccan [53]
Traditional livelihood n = 2
South Asian [27] Sami [66]
Transportation and infrastructure n = 5
South Asian [26, 27] Moroccan [32] Multiethnic [47] Mixed [68]
Lack of parental time n = 3
Pakistani [24] South Asian [34, 41]
Lack of knowledge of host culture n = 3
General [21] South Asian [54] Mixed [64]
Primary health care n = 2
Multiethnic [47] South Asian [58]
   Ideals of behaviour n = 7
Muslim [18, 28] Pakistani [24] South Asian [27, 34] Diverse [29] Immigrant [39]
Prevent disease n = 6
South Asian [5] Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [25, 58] Minority [43] Pakistani [65]
Emphasis on competitive sports n = 1
South Asian [34]
Climate n = 5
Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [27] Pakistani & Indian [31] Moroccan [32] Mixed [69]
Taking time from family and gender role activities n = 3
South Asian [5] African-Caribbean & South Asian [22] Pakistani & Indian [31]
Discrimination n = 1
Mixed [46]
Lack of follow-up n = 1
South Asian [58]
   Family n = 7
Muslim [18, 28] Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [26] Pakistani [50] Multi-ethnic [51] Turkish & Moroccan [52]
Karma/fatalism n = 5
South Asian [5] Surinamese & Indian [23] Pakistani [31] South Asian [40, 52]
Lack of PA in school n = 1
South Asian [34]
Unattractive neighbourhood n = 4
Mixed [45] Multiethnic [47] Turkish [59] Mixed [68]
Income n = 3
Migrants [35] Multiethic [47] Mixed [77]
Immigration history n = 1
Mixed [37]
Poor physical fitness n = 1
Pakistani [65]
   Shame n = 7
South Asian [5] Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [26, 27, 40] Pakistani & Indian [31] Immigrant [38]
Experience of PA/PE n = 5
Immigrant [39] Multiethnic [47] Middle East [55] South Asian [58] Mixed [60]
Lack of extra-curricular staff n = 1
Diverse [29]
Lack of gym instructor support n = 4
Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [26, 52, 58]
Parental employment n = 2
Pakistani [24] Mixed [75]
Stereotypes of children’s interests n = 1
South Asian [34]
Stress n = 1
Pakistani [65]
   Cultural requirements n = 6
Muslim [20] Pakistani [24] Diverse[29] South Asian [34] Turkish & Moroccan [53] General [54]
Goal setting n = 5
Surinamese & Indian [23] South Asian [27, 40] Minority [42] Pakistani [50]
Limited school resources n = 1
Diverse [29]
Living in urban area n = 3
Mixed [37] South Asian [40,70]
social position n = 2
Multiethnic [47] Pakistani & Indian [31]
Social ties with home country n = 1
Tunisian [74]
Depression n = 1
Pakistani [65]
   Social acceptance of PA n = 6
South Asian [5] African, Asian [22] South Asian [40] General [54, 56] Middle East [55]
Motivation n = 5
South Asian [26, 40, 58] Immigrant [39] Pakistani [65]
PE choices unappealing n = 1
Diverse [29]
Lack of women only facilities n = 3
Muslim [18] Mixed [37] Immigrant [39]
Marital staus n = 1
Turkish [30]
Generation n = 1
Minorities [57]
Bad health n = 1
Pakistani [65]
   Social environment n = 5
South Asian [27, 49] Multiethnic [47] Turkish & Moroccan [52] Minorities [57]
Notions of leisure-time PA n = 4
South Asian [27] Pakistani & Indian [31] Moroccan [32] Sami [66]
Lack of separation work-leisure n = 1
Sami [66]
Home environment n = 3
Moroccan [32] Immigrant [36] Multiethnic [47]
Parental education level n = 1
Mixed [77]
Host country n = 1
Turkish [30]
     Social support n = 5
South Asian [25, 26, 58] Immigrant [39] Turkish & Moroccan [53]
Lack of enjoyment of PA n = 4
Surinamese & Indian [23] Pakistani & Indian [31] Diverse [45] Muslim [48]
PE’s difference from other subjects n = 1
Muslim [19]
Too much traffic n = 2
Turkish [59] Mixed [45]
   Age at time of migration n = 1
Mixed [71]
     Structural constraints in family n = 5
Pakistani [24] Pakistani & Indian [31] Immigrant [39] Turkish [59] Mixed [60]
Health beliefs about PA n = 3
Surinamese & Indian [23] Pakistani & Indian [31] General[54]
Negotiating participation n = 1
Muslim [18]
Logistics of activities n = 2
South Asian [26] Immigrant [39]
   Migration n = 1
South Asian [52]
     Concepts of aging/generation n = 5
South Asian [26, 27] Immigrant [36] Turkish & Moroccan [52] South Asian [61]
Attitudes n = 3
Immigrants [56] South Asian [61] Pakistani [65]
   Short-term activities n = 2
South Asian [26] Pakistani & Indian [31]
   Immigrant parent n = 1
Mixed [77]
     Parental attitudes to PA n = 4
Muslim [18, 20, 28] Minorities [60]
Not the sporty type n = 3
South Asian [27] Multiethnic [47] Pakistani [65]
   Bad weather n = 2
South Asian [5] Pakistani [24]
,
    
     Lack of ‘exercise culture’ n = 4
Diverse [29] Pakistani & Indian [31] Turkish & Moroccan [52] Middle East [55]
PA as part of everyday life n = 2
South Asian [25, 34]
   Financial incentives n = 2
Multiethnic [47]
    
     Women not to be alone outside n = 3
Muslim [28] Pakistani & Indian [31] General[54]
Interest in PA n = 2
Mixed [29] Mixed [45]
   Lack of information n = 2
South Asian [52] Mixed [77]
    
     Purposeful PA selfish n = 3
South Asian [5] South Asian [49] General[54]
Perceived dis−/advantages of PA n = 2
South Asian [49] Turkish & Moroccan [53]
   Lack of open space n = 2
South Asian [5] South Asian [34]
    
     Age n = 3
Muslim [20] Turkish [30] South Asian [58]
Self-efficacy n = 2
Pakistani [50] Turkish & Moroccan [53]
   Attractive environment n = 1
Mixed [68]
    
     Religious festivals n = 3
Muslim [19] South Asian [26, 27]
Lack of knowledge of area n = 2
Pakistani & Indian [31] South Asian [52]
   Media portrayal of unsafe environment n = 1
South Asian [34]
    
     Religious prayer n = 3
Muslim [19] South Asian [26, 27]
Perceived restrictions n = 2
South Asian [49, 58]
   Access to play area n = 1
Mixed [60]
    
     Peer group n = 3
South Asian [26] Mixed [47] Turkish & Moroccan [52]
Views on age, lifestyle and health n = 2
South Asian [49, 58]
   Home appliances limit PA n = 1
Moroccan [32]
    
     Few active friends or family n = 3
South Asian [27] Minority [42] Pakistani [50]
Fear of racism n = 2
South Asian [54,61]
   Lack of green space n = 1
Mixed [29]
    
     PA role models n = 3
Muslim [20] Surinamese & Indian [23] Pakistani [50]
Preference of PA n = 2
Multiethnic [47] South Asian [52]
   Lack of safe storage in school for bikes/kit n = 1
Mixed [29]
    
     PA irrelevant to disease n = 2
Pakistani & Indian [31] General [54]
Not gaining weight n = 2
South Asian [49] Pakistani [65]
   Few sidewalks n = 1
Turkish [59]
    
     Ethnic group n = 2
South Asian & Caribbean [33] Minority [43]
Want to be fit n = 2
South Asian [49] Pakistani [65]
   Convenience of SB, e.g. TV n = 1
Pakistani [24]
    
     Ethnic minority concentration n = 2
General [37] Mixed [80]
Concerns about safety n = 1
South Asian [54]
   Status of PE in some Muslim communities n = 1
Muslim [20]
    
     Habitus n = 2
Minorities [57] Mixed [68]
Walking to school resisted n = 1
Mixed [29]
   Financial sanctions n = 1
Multiethnic [47]
    
     Social influence n = 2
South Asian [52] Turkish & Moroccan [53]
Fear of falling n = 1
South Asian [26]
   Country n = 1
Multiethnic [47]
    
     Functional support n = 2
South Asian [26, 52]
Lack of PA routine n = 1
South Asian [26]
   Structural barriers n = 1
South Asian [5]
    
     Facilitative relatives n = 2
South Asian [26, 52]
Lack of intention n = 1
Surinamese & Indian [23]
   Crime n = 1
Turkish [59]
    
     Social network n = 2
Mixed [46, 72]
Ability to use health care n = 1
Mixed [72]
        
     Preferred mode of transportation n = 2
Immigrant [38] Multiethnic [67]
Body consciousness increased during adolescence n = 1
Muslim [20]
        
     Religious community n = 2
Diverse [45] Multiethnic [47]
Religious consciousness increased during adolescence n = 1
Muslim [20]
        
     Stereotypes n = 1
Minority [42]
Lack of PA skills n = 1
Pakistani [50]
        
     Parental marital status n = 1
General[37]
Values associated with PA n = 1
Pakistani [50]
        
     Car use n = 1
South Asian [34]
Behavioural control n = 1
Pakistani [65]
        
     Inactive parental lifestyle n = 1
South Asian [34]
Identity n = 1
Pakistani [65]
        
     Increased sedentary activities n = 1
South Asian [34]
          
     Social resources n = 1
Minorities [60]
          
     Parents’ participation in organised sports n = 1
Minorities [60]
          
     Activities in own community n = 1
South Asian [40]
          
     Work ethics n = 1
South Asian [40]
          
     Historical experiences and adaptations n = 1
Minorities [57]
          
     Children as incentive to be active n = 1
South Asian [27]
          
     Partner’s or family disproval n = 1
South Asian [27]
          
     Behaviour of others n = 1
Turkish & Moroccan [53]
          
     Gym based exercise unfamiliar n = 1
South Asian [52]
          
     Collectivist norms n = 1
South Asian [52]
          
     Overprotective family n = 1
South Asian [52]
          
     Traditional authorities n = 1
Surinamese & Indian [23]
          
     Symbolic meaning of certain foods n = 1
Surinamese & Indian [23]
          
     Attitude of peers n = 1
Musilim [18]
          
     Traditional power relations n = 1
Musilim [18]