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Table 1 Characteristics of selected articles (N = 100)

From: Built environmental correlates of older adults’ total physical activity and walking: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristic Number of articles % Article reference
Study designa
 Cross-sectional 95 94 [19,20,21,22,23,24,25, 32, 43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50, 53, 54, 59, 60, 65, 67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80, 87, 92, 93, 100, 118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143,144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,173]
 Longitudinal 5 5 [61,62,63,64,65]
 Quasi-experimental 1 1 [66]
Geographical area: continent
 Africa 1 1 [25]
 Asia 16 16 [19,20,21,22, 60, 73, 75, 80, 124, 139, 142, 146, 160, 164, 169, 173]
 Europe 22 22 [50, 66, 74, 79, 87, 119, 120, 123, 129, 136, 137, 147, 148, 152, 154, 156, 157, 162, 163, 165, 166, 170]
 North America 46 46 [32, 43,44,45,46,47,48, 53, 54, 61,62,63,64,65, 67,68,69,70, 76, 78, 92, 93, 125,126,127, 130,131,132,133,134,135, 138, 140, 141, 143, 144, 149,150,151, 155, 158, 159, 161, 167, 168, 172]
 Oceania 13 13 [49, 59, 71, 72, 77, 100, 118, 121, 122, 128, 145, 153, 171]
 South America 2 2 [23, 24]
Geographical area: country
 Australia 13 13 [49, 59, 71, 72, 77, 100, 118, 121, 122, 128, 145, 153, 171]
 Belgium 2 2 [74, 170]
 Brazil 1 1 [23]
 Canada 10 10 [54, 61, 62, 78, 125,126,127, 135, 138, 172]
 China 1 1 [80]
 Colombia 1 1 [24]
 Czech Republic, Poland, & Slovakia (pooled analysis) 1 1 [154]
 Hong Kong, China 2 2 [73, 124]
 Iceland 1 1 [119]
 Iran 1 1 [146]
 Ireland 2 2 [147, 152]
 Japan 7 7 [19,20,21,22, 160, 164, 169]
 Lithuania 1 1 [120]
 Malaysia 1 1 [139]
 Netherlands 4 4 [123, 136, 137, 166]
 Norway 1 1 [157]
 Singapore 1 1 [142]
 South Africa 1 1 [25]
 South Korea 2 2 [75, 173]
 Thailand 1 1 [60]
 United Kingdom 10 10 [50, 66, 79, 87, 129, 148, 156, 162, 163, 165]
 United States of America 36 36 [32, 43,44,45,46,47,48, 53, 63,64,65, 67,68,69,70, 76, 92, 93, 130,131,132,133,134, 140, 141, 143, 144, 149,150,151, 155, 158, 159, 161, 167, 168]
Geographical setting
 Urban 56 56 [23,24,25, 32, 43,44,45,46,47,48, 50, 53, 59, 61,62,63,64, 66, 71, 72, 74, 80, 87, 92, 93, 100, 120,121,122, 124,125,126,127, 129,130,131, 133, 135,136,137,138, 142, 144, 146, 149, 153, 156,157,158, 161, 164, 165, 167, 170, 172]
 Rural 3 3 [67,68,69]
 Mixed 32 32 [19, 21, 22, 49, 54, 60, 75, 76, 79, 118,119,120, 123, 128, 132, 134, 139, 143, 145, 147, 148, 150, 152, 155, 159, 160, 162, 163, 166, 169, 171, 173]
 Not reported 9 9 [65, 70, 77, 78, 140, 141, 151, 154, 168]
Sample sizeb
 ≤ 100 9 9 [19, 25, 53, 61, 66, 118, 127, 135, 161]
 101–300 27 27 [32, 43, 53, 59, 60, 67, 69, 76, 87, 119, 120, 122, 123, 129, 132, 133, 140,141,142, 146, 150, 156, 162,163,164,165,166]
 301–500 23 23 [23, 47, 63, 64, 68, 71,72,73,74,75, 93, 100, 121, 124, 126, 131, 134, 153, 154, 160, 167, 169, 170]
 501–1000 16 16 [44,45,46, 48, 62, 78, 79, 92, 125, 128, 138, 144, 147, 148, 158, 159]
 1001–2500 11 11 [20, 22, 24, 50, 54, 77, 130, 151, 155, 172, 173]
 > 2500 16 16 [21, 49, 54, 65, 70, 80, 136, 137, 139, 143, 145, 149, 152, 157, 168, 171]
Study with multiple articles
 Active Living Study 3 3 [71, 72, 153]
 BEPAS Seniors 2 2 [74, 170]
 Great Britain older adults 1 2 2 [162, 163]
 Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System 2 2 [49, 171]
 LL-FDI study (Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument) 2 2 [132, 150]
 Melbourne older adults study 1 2 2 [121, 122]
 Netherlands Housing Survey (WoON) 2 2 [136, 137]
 Nurses’ Health Study 2 2 [70, 168]
 PACS (Physical Activity Cohort Scotland) 2 2 [79, 148]
 Project OPAL (Older People Active Living) 3 3 [87, 129, 165]
 SHAPE (Senior Health and Physical Exercise) 4 4 [32, 63, 92, 93]
 SNQLS (Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study) 6 6 [43,44,45,46,47,48]
 TILDA (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) 2 2 [147, 152]
 VoisiNuAge 2 2 [62, 138]
 Single publication (named study) 33 33 [21, 50, 54, 59, 61, 64,65,66, 73, 77, 78, 80, 100, 124, 128, 130, 133,134,135, 139, 140, 143,144,145, 149, 155, 157,158,159, 166, 169, 172, 173]
 Single publication (unnamed study) 31 31 [19, 20, 22,23,24,25, 53, 60, 67,68,69, 75, 76, 118,119,120, 123, 125,126,127, 131, 141, 142, 146, 151, 154, 156, 160, 161, 164, 167]
Neighbourhood recruitment stratificationa
Environmental attributes 57 57 [19, 21,22,23,24,25, 32, 44,45,46,47,48,49,50, 54, 60, 63, 66, 68, 71,72,73,74,75,76, 78,79,80, 87, 92, 118, 119, 123, 124, 126, 129, 130, 134, 135, 139, 146,147,148, 151, 153, 155, 159, 160, 162,163,164,165,166, 168, 170,171,172]
 Urbanisation 22 22 [19, 21, 22, 49, 54, 60, 68, 75, 78, 80, 118, 119, 123, 134, 139, 155, 159, 160, 166, 168, 171, 172]
 Area-level socio-economic status 6 6 [23, 25, 87, 129, 151, 165]
 Area-level socio-economic status & walkability 12 12 [44,45,46,47,48, 73, 74, 124, 126, 135, 146, 170]
 Area-level socio-economic status & urbanisation 10 10 [50, 63, 76, 79, 92, 130, 147, 148, 162, 163]
 Walkability 4 4 [32, 71, 72, 153]
 Streetscape 2 2 [66, 164]
Demographics 31 31 [20,21,22, 50, 62, 64, 69, 70, 79, 119, 121, 122, 132,133,134, 136,137,138, 141,142,143,144, 148, 150, 151, 155, 156, 161,162,163, 173]
 None 21 21 [43, 53, 59, 61, 65, 67, 77, 93, 100, 120, 125, 128, 131, 140, 145, 149, 154, 157, 158, 167, 169]
Neighbourhood definitiona
Objective
  Administrative/census area/postal code 25 25 [19, 54, 65, 68, 70, 74, 80, 118, 134, 136,137,138,139, 142, 145, 146, 148, 149, 157, 158, 160, 166, 170, 172, 173]
Buffer (crow-fly or road-network)
 ≤ 250 m 3 3 [21, 64, 171]
 300 m 1 1 [123]
 400–500 m 16 16 [21, 24, 44, 46,47,48,49, 59, 64, 72, 73, 93, 135, 153, 159, 171]
 800–1000 m 15 15 [21, 49, 59, 63, 64, 73, 92, 93, 130, 132, 135, 155, 161, 168, 171]
 > 1000 m 3 3 [161, 168, 171]
 Variable/not fixed 4 4 [32, 135, 151, 164]
 Retirement village 3 3 [43, 72, 153]
 Unknown (not reported) 3 3 [53, 62, 128]
Perceived
 10–20 min walk from home 24 24 [20, 22, 23, 44,45,46, 48, 60, 71, 72, 75, 79, 100, 121, 122, 124, 126, 131, 132, 141, 143, 150, 159, 169]
 Other participant delineation 22 22 [24, 25, 32, 50, 61, 62, 67, 69, 76, 78, 87, 120, 125, 129, 133, 140, 147, 151, 152, 154, 165, 167]
 Retirement village 2 2 [71, 153]
 Unknown (not reported) 6 6 [63, 77, 92, 134, 144, 156]
Physical activity outcome by type of measurement and its operationalisationa
Total PA (all PA outcomes from all articles)
 Continuous outcome 59 55.1 [19, 21, 43,44,45,46,47,48, 54, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65,66,67, 69, 71, 73, 74, 79, 80, 87, 92, 93, 118, 119, 121, 123,124,125, 127, 129, 131, 132, 134,135,136,137,138, 140,141,142,143,144, 147,148,149,150,151, 155, 160, 161, 164,165,166, 170, 173]
 Categorical outcome 48 44.9 [20, 22,23,24,25, 32, 49, 50, 53, 54, 61, 64, 65, 68, 70, 72, 75,76,77,78, 80, 93, 100, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 133, 135, 139, 144, 146, 152,153,154, 156,157,158,159, 162, 163, 167,168,169, 171, 172]
Objective PA 28 27.2  
  Continuous outcome 23 [19, 43,44,45,46,47,48, 59, 73, 74, 79, 118, 127, 129, 132, 135, 141, 148, 150, 164,165,166, 170]
  Categorical outcome 5 [25, 50, 61, 72, 135, 153]
Self-reported PA 75 73.8  
  Continuous outcome 37   [19, 21, 54, 60, 62, 63, 65,66,67, 69, 71, 73, 80, 87, 92, 93, 119, 121, 123,124,125, 131, 134, 136,137,138, 140,141,142,143,144, 147, 149, 151, 155, 160, 161, 173]
  Categorical outcome 45   [20, 22,23,24,25, 32, 49, 53, 54, 64, 65, 68, 70, 72, 75,76,77,78, 80, 93, 100, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 133, 139, 144, 146, 152,153,154, 156,157,158,159, 162, 163, 167,168,169, 171, 172]
 Total PA (as detailed in article) 31 27.2  
   Objective PA 8 8  
  Continuous outcome 8 8 [48, 79, 129, 135, 148, 150, 164, 166]
  Categorical outcome 0 0  
Self-reported PA 23 23  
  Continuous outcome 19 19 [19, 60, 65,66,67, 69, 73, 87, 119, 121, 125, 136, 137, 141, 143, 147, 151, 160, 161]
  Categorical outcome 4 4 [65, 70, 126, 157]
 Total walking (as detailed in article) 55 48.2  
Objective PA 9 9  
  Continuous outcome 8 8 [19, 118, 127, 129, 132, 135, 141, 165]
  Categorical outcome 2 2 [61, 135]
Self-reported PA 47 47  
  Continuous outcome 19 19 [21, 62, 63, 65, 67, 71, 80, 92, 93, 123, 124, 131, 134, 138, 142, 144, 149, 155, 173]
  Categorical outcome 32 32 [20, 22,23,24, 32, 49, 53, 64, 65, 70, 72, 75, 76, 80, 93, 100, 122, 124, 130, 144, 146, 153, 154, 158, 159, 162, 163, 167,168,169, 171, 172]
 Total MVPAc (as detailed in article) 28 24.6  
Objective PA 15 15  
 Continuous outcome 11 11 [43,44,45,46,47,48, 73, 74, 129, 166, 170]
 Categorical outcome 4 4 [25, 50, 72, 153]
Self-reported PA 14 14  
 Continuous outcome 3 3 [54, 140, 173]
 Categorical outcome 12 12 [25, 54, 68, 77, 78, 120, 128, 130, 133, 139, 152, 156]
Environmental attribute by type of measurementa
Objective environment 49 48  
Perceived environment 53 52  
 Walkability 13 13  
   Objective 11 11 [46, 48, 72,73,74, 146, 153, 155, 167, 171, 172]
   Perceived 2 2 [126, 141]
 Residential density/urbanisationd 35 35  
   Objective 21 21 [19, 21, 47, 54, 65, 70, 73, 80, 92, 118, 119, 123, 128, 134, 139, 148, 158,159,160, 168, 173]
   Perceived 15 15 [20, 22, 25, 48, 76, 132, 140, 145, 147, 150, 152, 154, 159, 162, 169]
 Street connectivityd 24 24  
   Objective 10 10 [21, 24, 43, 53, 73, 93, 159, 161, 166, 168]
   Perceived 16 16 [20, 23, 25, 48, 53, 71, 76, 79, 127, 132, 140, 142, 150, 154, 159, 170]
 Access to/availability of destinations & servicesa 65 65  
   Objective 29 29  
   Perceived 45 45  
 Overall access to destinations & servicesd 24 24  
   Objective 6 6 [21, 53, 62, 93, 135, 168]
   Perceived 21 21 [20, 23, 25, 48, 50, 53, 62, 67, 71, 76, 87, 100, 126, 127, 131, 132, 140, 141, 150, 154, 159]
 Land-use mix—destination diversityd 16 16  
   Objective 8 8 [49, 72, 80, 123, 135, 153, 159, 161]
   Perceived 9 9 [25, 48, 67, 76, 125, 132, 150, 159, 170]
 Shops/commercial destinationsd 26 26  
   Objective 17 17 [32, 43, 47, 49, 53, 72, 73, 80, 93, 135, 148, 158, 159, 161, 166, 168]
   Perceived 10 10 [22, 23, 32, 75, 129, 141, 142, 156, 165, 169]
 Food outlets 11 11  
   Objective 8 8 [43, 47, 49, 53, 73, 135, 166, 168]
   Perceived 3 3 [23, 141, 142]
 Government/finance services 8 8  
   Objective 7 7 [43, 47, 49, 53, 73, 135, 158]
   Perceived 1 1 [23]
 Education 7 7  
   Objective 6 6 [21, 132, 135, 158, 161, 168]
   Perceived 1 1 [141]
 Health & aged care 10 10  
   Objective 8 8 [43, 49, 53, 72, 135, 153, 158, 166]
   Perceived 2 2 [23, 156]
 Religious 5 5  
   Objective 3 3 [43, 135, 161]
   Perceived 2 2 [23, 141]
 Public transport 18 18  
   Objective 8 8 [24, 47, 72, 73, 80, 93, 158, 166]
   Perceived 10 10 [22, 23, 48, 50, 62, 68, 100, 141, 156, 169]
 Parks/public open spaced 30 30  
   Objective 17 17 [21, 24, 32, 43, 44, 48, 53, 64, 73, 92, 93, 124, 132, 135, 151, 158, 161]
   Perceived 15 15 [23, 32, 46, 66, 68, 69, 75, 100, 125, 141, 142, 144, 151, 156, 163]
 Recreational facilities 25 25  
   Objective 10 10 [43, 47, 64, 72, 73, 124, 132, 135, 153, 168]
   Perceived 15 15 [22, 23, 46, 60, 63, 68, 77, 78, 92, 120, 125, 142, 156, 169, 170]
 Social recreational facilities 13 13  
   Objective 6 6 [43, 49, 73, 135, 138, 166]
   Perceived 7 7 [23, 50, 71, 141, 142, 153, 156]
 Other destinations 1 1  
   Objective 1 1 [43]
   Perceived 0 0  
 Infrastructure & streetscapea 43 43  
   Objective 12 12  
   Perceived 34 34  
 Overall cycle/walk-friendly infrastructure 8 8  
   Objective 0 0  
   Perceived 9 9 [25, 48, 66, 76, 127, 132, 150, 154, 159]
 Walk-friendly infrastructure 21 21  
   Objective 7 7 [43, 47, 80, 93, 124, 132, 161]
   Perceived 14 14 [22, 44, 53, 61, 62, 68, 69, 71, 100, 121, 125, 142, 169, 170]
 Cycle-friendly infrastructure 4 4  
   Objective 1 1 [47]
   Perceived 3 3 [22, 125, 169]
 No physical environmental barriers (e.g., hills) 16 16  
   Objective 8 8 [21, 24, 32, 43, 47, 72, 124, 164]
   Perceived 9 9 [23, 32, 66, 71, 100, 125, 142, 169, 170]
 Pavement/footpath quality 8 8  
   Objective 2 2 [47, 124]
   Perceived 6 6 [23, 24, 66, 121, 142, 163]
 Street lighting 6 6  
   Objective 1 1 [124]
   Perceived 5 5 [23, 53, 69, 75, 122]
 Greenery & aesthetically pleasing sceneryd 33 33  
   Objective 6 6 [32, 43, 47, 80, 124, 161]
   Perceived 28 28 [20, 22, 23, 25, 32, 44, 48, 53, 61, 71, 75, 76, 79, 100, 122, 125, 127, 132, 137, 142, 147, 150, 154, 156, 159, 163, 169, 170]
 Pollution (air) 3 3  
   Objective 1 1 [124]
   Perceived 2 2 [23, 156]
 Safety 46 46  
   Objective 7 7  
   Perceived 40 40  
 Traffic/pedestrian safety 28 28  
   Objective 4 4 [47, 72, 93, 124]
   Perceived 24 24 [22,23,24,25, 45, 48, 53, 61, 69, 71, 75, 76, 79, 92, 100, 125, 132, 136, 142, 150, 156, 159, 169, 170]
 Crime/personal safetyd 41 41  
   Objective 5 5 [43, 93, 124, 149, 157]
   Perceived 37 37 [22, 23, 25, 45, 48, 50, 53, 61, 63, 66, 68, 69, 71, 75, 76, 79, 100, 121, 122, 125, 132,133,134, 137, 140, 142,143,144,145, 150, 156, 157, 159, 163, 167, 169, 170]
 Moderator of environmental attribute-PA associationa 39 39  
Individual factors 24 24 [20,21,22,23, 44, 45, 48,49,50, 59, 69, 70, 73, 77, 79, 100, 122, 125, 131, 144, 152, 155, 157, 159]
  Socio-demographics 16 16 [20,21,22,23, 45, 49, 50, 69, 70, 73, 122, 125, 144, 152, 155, 157]
  Health status/functionality 7 7 [59, 73, 77, 100, 131, 155, 159]
  Psychosocial factors 3 3 [44, 79, 100]
  Driving status/car ownership 2 2 [48, 73]
  Duration of residency 1 1 [21]
Environmental factors 18 18 [19, 21, 25, 45, 46, 64, 66, 74,75,76, 92,