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Table 3 Associations of environmental attributes/correlates with older adults’ physical activity by physical activity outcomes

From: Built environmental correlates of older adults’ total physical activity and walking: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Environmental attribute Total PA1 Total walking only
P Ø N pa Da P Ø N pa Da
Walkability 12.33 6.67 0 <.001 P 4.37 3.63 0 .001 P
Residential density/urbanisation 11.53 33.50 12.97 .394 Ø 8 14.50 3.50 .036 P
Street connectivity 8.80 26.06 2.14 .094 Ø 5.80 13.20 2 .185 Ø
Access to/availability of destinations & services
 Overall access to destinations & services 12.55 38.15 0.50 <.001 P 6.93 25.57 0.50 .009 P
 Land-use mix—destination diversity 5.68 19.32 2 .148 Ø 1 8 2 .439 Ø
 Shops/commercial 9.96 57.04 0 .006 P 8.58 23.42 0 .001 P
 Food outlets 0.72 21.28 1 .932 Ø 0.72 6.28 1 .873 Ø
 Government/finance services 0.33 11.67 0 .834 Ø 0 6 0 1.00 Ø
 Education 0.31 11.69 0 .765 Ø 0.14 2.85 0 .826 Ø
 Health & aged care 4.61 26.39 1 .275 Ø 3.61 7.39 1 .191 Ø
 Religious 0 8 0 1.00 Ø 0 1 0 1.00 Ø
 Public transport 7.50 25.50 1 .016 P 5.50 11.50 1 .011 P
 Parks/public open space 11.29 47.54 0.17 .002 P 6.05 23.78 0.17 .014 P
 Recreational facilities 13.34 39.66 0 <.001 P 3.07 15.93 0 .135 Ø
 Social recreational facilities 4.15 25.95 0 .105 Ø 1.50 10.50 0 .413 Ø
 Other destinations 0 3 0 1.00 Ø - - - - -
Infrastructure & streetscape
 Overall access to cycle/walk-friendly infrastructure 1 9 0 .612 Ø 0 3 0 1.00 Ø
 Walk-friendly infrastructure 9 21.49 1.51 .009 P 5 15 0 .042 P
 Cycle-friendly infrastructure 0 5 0 1.00 Ø 0 3 0 1.00 Ø
 No physical barriers (e.g., hills) 5 20.40 2.60 .208 Ø 2 14.40 0.60 .384 Ø
 Pavement/footpath quality 3 6 1 .155 Ø 2 5 0 .169 Ø
 Street lighting 3 6 0 .059 Ø 3 4 0 .042 P
 Greenery & aesthetically pleasing scenery 13.01 45.49 0.5 .004 P 10.51 19.49 0 .002 P
 Pollution (air) 0 5 0 1.00 Ø 0 4 0 1.00 Ø
Safety
 Traffic/pedestrian safety 7 47 3 .463 Ø 5 25 3 .705 Ø
 Crime/personal safety 20.52 50.48 4 <.001 P 10.49 28.01 2.50 .027 P
  1. Notes: 1Objective and self-report total PA (including total walking) combined. P = positive association; Ø = nil association; N = negative association; p = p-value; D = direction of association supported by the data; subscript “a” = fully adjusted (for sample size and article quality). In bold font: statistically significant evidence of a directional association that has been sufficiently studied (i.e., ≥5 findings reported on specific combinations of environmental exposure and PA variables)