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Table 4 Associations of environmental attributes/correlates with older adults’ physical activity by physical activity measurement method (objective and self-report)

From: Built environmental correlates of older adults’ total physical activity and walking: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Environmental attribute Total PA
Objective Self-report
P Ø N pa Da P Ø N pa Da
Walkability 5.96 2.04 0 <.001 P 6.37 4.63 0 <.001 P
Residential density/urbanisation 1 7 0 .377 Ø 10.53 26.50 12.97 .240 Ø
Street connectivity 3 7.86 0.14 .262 Ø 5.71 18.20 2 .215 Ø
Access to/availability of destinations & services
 Overall access to destinations & services 3.89 8.31 0 .005 P 8.66 29.84 0.50 .004 P
 Land-use mix—destination diversity 3.17 8.83 0 .019 P 2.51 12.49 2 .884 Ø
 Shops/commercial 1.38 26.62 0 .507 Ø 8.58 29.42 0 .002 P
 Food outlets 0 13 0 1.00 Ø 0.72 8.28 1 .884 Ø
 Government/finance services 0.34 5.66 0 .377 Ø 0 6 0 1.00 Ø
 Education 0.17 6.83 0 .818 Ø 0.14 4.86 0 .845 Ø
 Health & aged care 1 18 0 .612 Ø 3.61 8.39 1 .206 Ø
 Religious 0 5 0 1.00 Ø 0 3 0 1.00 Ø
 Public transport 1 12 0 .520 Ø 6.50 13.50 1 .006 P
 Parks/public open space 1.75 14.25 0 .296 Ø 9.54 33.29 0.17 .002 P
 Recreational facilities 4.29 16.71 0 .056 Ø 9.05 22.95 0 .002 P
 Social recreational facilities 2.65 12.35 0 .118 Ø 1.50 13.50 0 .432 Ø
Infrastructure & streetscape
 Overall access to cycle/walk-friendly infrastructure 1 5 0 .529 Ø 0 4 0 1.00 Ø
 Walk-friendly infrastructure 3 3 0 .031 P 6 18.49 1.51 .059 Ø
 No physical barriers (e.g., hills) 3 5 1 .135 Ø 2 15.40 1.60 .631 Ø
 Greenery & aesthetically pleasing scenery 1.50 15 0.50 .741 Ø 11.51 30.49 0 .001 P
Safety
 Traffic/pedestrian safety 2 14 0 .408 Ø 5 33 3 .737 Ø
 Crime/personal safety 3 8 0 .063 Ø 17.52 42.48 4 .001 P
  1. Notes: P = positive association; Ø = nil association; N = negative association; p = p-value; D = direction of association supported by the data; subscript “a” = fully adjusted (for sample size and article quality). In bold font: statistically significant evidence of a directional association that has been sufficiently studied (i.e., ≥5 findings reported on specific combinations of environmental exposure and PA variables)