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Table 2 Direct and indirect effects of product reformulation on calorie turnover and sales value for product groups (per cent)

From: Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets – ‘silent’ reformulation of retailer-brand food products

  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Calories - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  
Direct reformulation Reformulation-induced substitution Total calorie Sales revenue
Mayonnaise −8.2% 0.7% −7.5% 0.4%
Fruit yoghurt −3.9% 0.1%N.S. −3.8% 0.1% N.S.
Rye bread with pumpkin seeds −0.5% 0.7% N.S. 0.2% 0.7% N.S.
Toasting buns −2.3% −0.7% −3.0% −0.5%
Yoghurt bread −3.2% −0.5% N.S. −3.7% −0.5% N.S.
Carrot buns −4.9% 0.7% N.S. −4.2% 0.4% N.S.
Whole-grain rolls −2.7% 0.0% −2.7% −0.1%
Chocolate muesli −0.5% 3.7% N.S. 3.1% 2.2% N.S.
  1. N.S. Not significant