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Table 3 Adjusted associations between predictors and total and device-specific SVT (h/day) in 2- and 3-year-old children

From: Predictors of screen viewing time in young Singaporean children: the GUSTO cohort

  Total screen viewing time TV viewing time Hand-held device viewing time
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI)
Intercept 1.22 (0.80, 1.64) 0.95 (0.39, 1.51) 0.75 (0.44, 1.05) 0.61 (0.19, 1.03) 0.37 (0.16, 0.58) 0.24 (−0.04, 0.51)
Age (ref: 2-year)
 3-year 0.29 (0.13, 0.46) 0.29 (0.10, 0.48) 0.03 (−0.09, 0.15) 0.00 (−0.13, 0.14) 0.27 (0.18, 0.36) 0.30 (0.20, 0.41)
Centre (ref: KKH)
 NUH 0.22 (−0.05, 0.50) 0.06 (−0.28, 0.39) 0.27 (0.07, 0.47) 0.18 (−0.07, 0.43) −0.06 (−0.20, 0.08) −0.12 (−0.29, 0.04)
Ethnicity (ref: Chinese)
 Malay 0.94 (0.64, 1.25) 1.04 (0.66, 1.41) 0.42 (0.20, 0.64) 0.42 (0.14, 0.70) 0.44 (0.29, 0.60) 0.51 (0.33, 0.70)
 Indian 0.60 (0.28, 0.92) 0.54 (0.15, 0.94) 0.39 (0.16, 0.62) 0.39 (0.10, 0.69) 0.14 (−0.03, 0.30) 0.09 (−0.11, 0.28)
Child sex (ref: Female)
 Male −0.05 (−0.27, 0.18) 0.00 (−0.27, 0.27) −0.06 (−0.22, 0.11) 0.01 (−0.19, 0.21) −0.05 (−0.16, 0.06) −0.08 (−0.21, 0.05)
Birth order (ref: Second born)
 First born 0.16 (−0.08, 0.41) 0.17 (−0.12, 0.47) −0.01 (−0.19, 0.17) −0.03 (−0.24, 0.19) 0.14 (0.02, 0.27) 0.18 (0.04, 0.32)
Monthly household incomes (ref: ≥6000 SGD)
 < 2000 SGD 0.28 (−0.17, 0.73) 0.15 (−0.43, 0.72) 0.41 (0.08, 0.74) 0.38 (−0.04, 0.81) −0.17 (−0.40, 0.06) −0.26 (−0.54, 0.01)
 2000-3999 SGD 0.20 (−0.16, 0.57) −0.04 (−0.48, 0.41) 0.22 (−0.05, 0.49) 0.04 (−0.29, 0.37) −0.05 (−0.24, 0.13) −0.11 (−0.33, 0.10)
 4000-5999 SGD 0.11 (−0.22, 0.44) 0.01 (−0.38, 0.40) 0.10 (−0.14, 0.35) 0.00 (−0.29, 0.29) 0.00 (−0.16, 0.17) −0.01 (−0.20, 0.18)
Maternal age (ref: ≥35 years)
 < 25 years 0.43 (−0.02, 0.89) 0.28 (−0.37, 0.93) 0.19 (−0.14, 0.53) 0.05 (−0.43, 0.53) 0.23 (0.00, 0.46) 0.19 (−0.12, 0.51)
 25-29 years 0.14 (−0.17, 0.45) −0.12 (−0.58, 0.34) 0.10 (−0.13, 0.33) −0.03 (−0.37, 0.31) 0.06 (−0.10, 0.22) −0.05 (−0.28, 0.17)
 30-34 years −0.04 (−0.33, 0.26) −0.28 (−0.68, 0.12) −0.04 (−0.26, 0.17) −0.2 (−0.49, 0.10) 0.03 (−0.12, 0.18) −0.06 (−0.25, 0.14)
Maternal education (ref: University)
 Post-secondary 0.41 (0.10, 0.73) 0.42 (0.03, 0.81) 0.30 (0.07, 0.53) 0.22 (−0.07, 0.51) 0.15 (−0.01, 0.31) 0.24 (0.05, 0.43)
 Primary or Secondary 0.34 (−0.03, 0.72) 0.59 (0.12, 1.05) 0.21 (−0.07, 0.48) 0.30 (−0.05, 0.64) 0.14 (−0.05, 0.33) 0.29 (0.06, 0.52)
Maternal daily television viewing time (ref: <1 h)
 1-2 h 0.04 (−0.31, 0.39) −0.04 (−0.46, 0.38) 0.17 (−0.08, 0.43) 0.09 (−0.22, 0.40) −0.09 (−0.27, 0.08) −0.14 (−0.34, 0.06)
 2-3 h 0.19 (−0.18, 0.56) 0.04 (−0.41, 0.50) 0.24 (−0.02, 0.51) 0.16 (−0.17, 0.50) 0.01 (−0.18, 0.20) −0.10 (−0.32, 0.12)
 ≥ 3 h 0.77 (0.42, 1.12) 0.70 (0.28, 1.13) 0.65 (0.39, 0.90) 0.63 (0.32, 0.95) 0.16 (−0.02, 0.34) 0.06 (−0.15, 0.26)
Paternal age (ref: ≥40 years)
 < 30 years - 0.52 (−0.05, 1.08) - 0.42 (0.01, 0.84) - 0.06 (−0.22, 0.33)
 30-34 years - >0.62 (0.14, 1.11) - 0.40 (0.04, 0.76) - 0.27 (0.03, 0.50)
 35-39 years - 0.32 (−0.12, 0.75) - 0.27 (−0.05, 0.6) - 0.03 (−0.18, 0.24)
Paternal education (ref: University)
 Primary or Secondary - 0.10 (−0.35, 0.55) - 0.11 (−0.23, 0.44) - 0.02 (−0.19, 0.24)
 Post-secondary - −0.01 (−0.41, 0.4) - −0.01 (−0.31, 0.29) - 0.05 (−0.15, 0.25)
Paternal daily television viewing time (ref: <1 h)
 1-2 h - 0.04 (−0.29, 0.36) - −0.08 (−0.32, 0.16) - 0.12 (−0.04, 0.28)
 2-3 h - 0.46 (0.03, 0.89) - 0.29 (−0.03, 0.61) - 0.25 (0.04, 0.46)
 ≥ 3 h - 0.40 (−0.03, 0.83) - 0.29 (−0.03, 0.60) - 0.14 (−0.06, 0.35)
  1. Values are regression coefficients (95% CI) of multivariable linear mixed-effect models. Models were adjusted for all the variables displayed in the table