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Table 1 Characteristics of participants overall and by frequency of consuming home cooked meals

From: Frequency of eating home cooked meals and potential benefits for diet and health: cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study

Covariatea Consumption of home cooked main meals
Total <3×/week 3-5×/week >5×/week
n = 11,396 (100.00%) n = 704 (6.18%) n = 3688 (32.36%) n = 7004 (61.46%)
Sex Male 5321 389 (7.31) 1914 (35.97) 3018 (56.72)
Female 6075 315 (5.19) 1774 (29.20) 3986 (65.61)
Age (years) Median (IQR) 48.9 (42.7, 54.8) 47.1 (41.7, 53.3) 48.3 (42.2, 53.9) 49.5 (43.1, 55.3)
Alcohol (grams/day) Median (IQR) 5.47 (1.27, 10.72) 3.90 (0.76, 9.56) 5.47 (1.30, 10.56) 5.47 (1.27, 10.88)
Age at leaving full-time education (years) ≤16 4570 351 (7.68) 1709 (37.40) 2510 (54.92)
>16 to ≤18 2521 148 (5.87) 839 (33.28) 1534 (60.85)
>18 4305 205 (4.76) 1140 (26.48) 2960 (68.76)
Smoker No 10,045 569 (5.66) 3133 (31.19) 6343 (63.15)
Yes 1351 135 (9.99) 555 (41.08) 661 (48.93)
Family History of diabetesb No 8677 535 (6.17) 2796 (32.22) 5346 (61.61)
Yes 2719 169 (6.22) 892 (32.81) 1658 (60.98)
Physical activity (kJc/kgd/day) Median (IQR) 51.00 (37.84, 66.75) 49.64 (35.82, 65.82) 51.57 (38.22, 67.64) 50.89 (37.88, 66.27)
Working in past 4 weeks No 1959 118 (6.02) 563 (28.74) 1278 (65.24)
Yes 9437 586 (6.21) 3125 (33.11) 5726 (60.68)
Working hours Median (IQR) 33.0 (14.0, 40.0) 37.0 (20.0, 43.7) 35.0 (17.5, 41.0) 30.0 (12.0, 40.0)
Overtime work (>48 h/week) No 10,116 592 (5.85) 3243 (32.06) 6281 (62.09)
Yes 1280 112 (8.75) 445 (34.77) 723 (56.48)
Outcomei  
Vitamin C (umol/le) Median (IQR) 69.40 (56.00, 82.00) 63.15 (44.73, 77.38) 66.80 (52.70, 80.10) 71.1 (58.5, 83.4)
Fruit intake (grams/day) Median (IQR) 207.10 (111.61, 329.50) 142.53 (60.08, 264.19) 180.53 (93.10, 293.10) 226.83 (131.16, 353.04)
Vegetable intake (grams/day) Median (IQR) 258.95 (188.89, 348.56) 174.41 (111.92, 257.26) 234.59 (172.55, 310.33) 280.56 (209.53, 375.83)
DASH scoref Median (IQR) 24 (21, 27) 22 (19, 25) 23 (20, 26) 25 (22, 28)
MDSg Median (IQR) 9 (7,11) 7 (6, 10) 8 (6, 10) 10 (7, 11)
Excess body fat (≥25% men; ≥38% women) No 4831 246 (5.09) 1399 (28.96) 3186 (65.95)
Yes 6565 458 (6.98) 2289 (34.87) 3818 (58.16)
Overweight BMIh (≥25.0) No 4384 211 (4.81) 1290 (29.43) 2883 (65.76)
Yes 7012 493 (7.03) 2398 (34.20) 4121 (58.77)
High cholesterol ratio (≥4.0) No 7234 400 (5.53) 2209 (30.54) 4625 (63.93)
Yes 4162 304 (7.30) 1479 (35.54) 2379 (57.16)
High HbA1c i(≥42.00) No 10,207 608 (5.96) 3265 (31.99) 6334 (62.06)
Yes 1189 96 (8.07) 423 (35.58) 670 (56.35)
Hypertension No 8561 516 (6.03) 2761 (32.25) 5283 (61.72)
Yes 2836 188 (6.63) 927 (32.69) 1721 (60.68)
  1. aResults shown as number (row percentage). Median (inter-quartile range) shown for: age, alcohol, physical activity, average working hours, vitamin C, fruit intake, vegetable intake, DASH score, MDS
  2. bHistory of diabetes in first degree relative
  3. ckj = kilojoules
  4. dkg = kilograms
  5. eumol/l = micromole/l
  6. fDASH = Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
  7. gMDS = Mediterranean Diet Score
  8. hBMI = body mass index
  9. iHbA1c = Haemoglobin A1c