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Table 2 Associations between frequency of consuming home cooked meals and markers of diet and cardio-metabolic status

From: Frequency of eating home cooked meals and potential benefits for diet and health: cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study

Outcomes Home cooked mealsa Unadjusted value (99% CIb) Adjusted value, model 1c (99% CIb) Adjusted value, model 2d (99% CIb)
Regression coefficients for dietary indicators
DASH scoree 3-5×/week 0.23 (0.13, 0.34) 0.18 (0.08, 0.28) NA
>5×/week 0.61 (0.51, 0.71) 0.44 (0.35, 0.54) NA
MDSf 3-5×/week 0.27 (0.17, 0.38) 0.23 (0.13, 0.33) NA
>5×/week 0.64 (0.54, 0.74) 0.52 (0.42, 0.61) NA
Vitamin C (μmol/lg) 3-5×/week 4.50 (2.28, 6.73) 3.29 (1.18, 5.39) NA
>5×/week 8.95 (6.81, 11.09) 5.35 (3.31, 7.39) NA
Fruit intake (grams/day) 3-5×/week 32.29 (12.14, 52.44) 27.17 (7.43, 46.92) NA
>5×/week 79.06 (59.69, 98.43) 62.33 (43.19, 81.46) NA
Vegetable intake (grams/day) 3-5×/week 54.22 (40.06, 68.39) 50.54 (36.61, 64.29) NA
>5×/week 107.43 (93.81, 121.05) 97.83 (84.42, 111.24) NA
Odds ratios for markers of cardio-metabolic status
Cholesterol binary (high vs low risk) 3-5×/week 0.88 (0.71, 1.09) 0.96 (0.76, 1.21) 0.99 (0.78, 1.25)
>5×/week 0.68 (0.55, 0.83) 0.87 (0.70, 1.09) 0.93 (0.74, 1.17)
BMIh binary (over- vs normal weight) 3-5×/week 0.80 (0.63, 1.00) 0.81 (0.64, 1.02) 0.82 (0.65, 1.05)
>5×/week 0.61 (0.49, 0.76) 0.70 (0.55, 0.88) 0.72 (0.57, 0.92)
Body fat binary (excess vs normal) 3-5×/week 0.88 (0.70, 1.10) 0.89 (0.71, 1.13) 0.92 (0.73, 1.17)
>5×/week 0.64 (0.52, 0.80) 0.71 (0.57, 0.89) 0.76 (0.60, 0.95)
HbA1c i binary (high vs low risk) 3-5×/week 0.82 (0.60, 1.12) 0.83 (0.60, 1.15) 0.86 (0.62, 1.19)
>5×/week 0.67 (0.50, 0.91) 0.68 (0.49, 0.93) 0.73 (0.53, 1.01)
Hypertension binary (yes vs no) 3-5×/week 0.92 (0.72, 1.17) 0.88 (0.69, 1.13) 0.89 (0.69, 1.14)
>5×/week 0.89 (0.71, 1.13) 0.84 (0.67, 1.07) 0.86 (0.67, 1.09)
  1. aConsumption of home cooked meals as main meal at home: comparisons with low consumption (<3×/week, reference), for medium consumption (3-5×/week), and high consumption (>5×/week)
  2. bCI = 99% confidence interval
  3. cAdjusted for age, sex, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, working status, working overtime, years of full time education (+ family history diabetes for HbA1c outcome)
  4. dAdjusted for age, sex, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, working status, working overtime, years of full time education, DASH score, MDS, vitamin C, fruit intake, vegetable intake (+ family history diabetes for HbA1c outcome)
  5. eDASH = Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
  6. fMDS = Mediterranean Diet Score
  7. gumol/l = micromole/l
  8. hBMI = Body Mass Index
  9. iHbA1c = Haemoglobin A1c