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Table 1 Examples of measures for assessing constructs

From: Citizen science applied to building healthier community environments: advancing the field through shared construct and measurement development

Construct Measures
 Demographics Sexa
Age/Date of Birtha
Socioeconomic Status: Educational attainmenta
Number of people in householda
Health statusa
 Advocacy Skills Social Issues Advocacy Scale (SIAS) [75] a
 Empowerment Personal Empowerment Scale [76]a
 Civic Engagement Volunteer experience [77]a
Civic engagement scale (adolescents) [78]a
 Self-efficacy The Older Adults’ Computer Technology Attitudes Scale [52]a
Computer Use Self Efficacy Scale [53]a, d
Self-efficacy for Exercise Scale [79]a
 Health Behavior Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire for midlife and older adults [80]a
International Physical Activity Questionnaire version for ages 15–65 years (IPAQ; 54) [81]a
Accelerometry & related device-based assessment tools [82]a
 Social Norms Injunctive Norms [83]a
 Neighborhood Cohesion Neighborhood cohesion [84]a
Social Network Analysis [28]b
 Urban/Rural e.g., U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classification of counties (
 Poverty e.g., English Indices of Deprivation (
 Safety Perceived neighborhood safety ([85])a
Neighborhood Incivilities From the Neighborhood Inventory of Environmental Typology (NlfETy) [86]b
 Weather/Air Quality Ambient temperaturesb
Ambient fine particulate matterb
Historical weather data2 (e.g., Environment Canada: b
 Walkability Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale; ANEWS [59]a
 Public Transport e.g., Walking distance to a transit stop/station from residential address is less than 400 m for bus stop or train or less than 800 m to train/rail station access [58]
 Allocation of Resources New funds allocated to environmental resources to support PAc
 Zoning Number of changes to zoning ordinances designed to promote environmental support for PAc
 Community Engagement in Government Proportion of residents actively participating in local government meetingsc
Office-holders’ perceived level of impact that residents have on local government decisionsc
Process Evaluation
 Intervention components Fidelity of interventionc
 Acceptability of intervention components Satisfaction with the interventiona,c
 Intervention Reach Awareness of the interventiona,c
  1. aAssessed at the level of the individual
  2. bAssessed in the aggregate or via existing databases
  3. cAssessed via document review, observation, and/or key informant interviews
  4. dIncreasingly, information technology is being used to facilitate citizen science projects [87]. For citizen science projects that incorporate this type of technology, measuring individual level self-efficacy at baseline can inform the amount of technology support that participants may require, and measuring this construct at follow up may indicate how participation in an information technology-driven citizen science project has changed the confidence with which participants interact with technology