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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Externalizing behavior is prospectively associated with intake of added sugar and sodium among low socioeconomic status preschoolers in a sex-specific manner

Baseline child and household correlates Mean ± SD (unless otherwise specified)
Child’s age, months 49.5 ± 6.2
Male sex, % 48
Overweight/obese, % 34
Physical activity, hours/wka 18.5 ± 10.9
Screen time, hours/dayb 2.6 ± 1.6
Added sugar intake, % of total Caloriesc 12.9 ± 6.1
Sodium intake, mg/1000 Caloriesd 1604 ± 332
Externalizing SCBE T-scoree 51.9 ± 9.4
Parent/guardian education level, %
 Did not graduate HS 15
 HS graduate/GED 33
 Post-HS education 52
Household income-to-needs ratiof 0.86 ± 0.54
Parent/guardian CES-D scoreg
  ≥ 16, depressed, % 30
Child race/ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanic, % 51
  1. aThere are not consistent physical activity recommendations for children <6 in the US, although Canadian and Australian recommendations are 3 h/day (21 h/week) [40]
  2. bRecommendations for children under 5 years are <2 h/day [41]
  3. cUS dietary recommendations are <10% of total Caloric intake from added sugar per day [20]
  4. dUS dietary recommendations are <2300 mg per day [20]; depending on Calorie needs which range from 1200 to 2000 Calories in this age group, that equates to >1150 mg/1000 Calories to >1917 mg/1000 Calories
  5. eAn externalizing SCBE T-score of 70 is considered the cutoff for externalizing behavior [6]
  6. fAn income-to-needs poverty ratio < 2 is classified as poverty [42, 43]
  7. gThe CES-D scores range from 0 to 60, with a score of 16 or greater considered at risk of clinical depression [22]