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Table 3 Mean ± SD added sugar and sodium intake at follow-up according to baseline correlates

From: Externalizing behavior is prospectively associated with intake of added sugar and sodium among low socioeconomic status preschoolers in a sex-specific manner

   Boys Girls
Baseline child and household correlates N Added sugar, % of total Calories Sodium, mg/1000 Calories N Added sugar, % of total Calories Sodium, mg/1000 Calories
Child’s age
 3 y 92 12.5 ± 7.3 1586 ± 375 99 12.6 ± 6.5 1601 ± 326
 4 y or older 156 13.2 ± 5.0 1599 ± 308 171 13.0 ± 6.1 1614 ± 336
P value1   0.39 0.99   0.16 0.55
Child’s race/ethnicity
 White, non-Hispanic 126 13.5 ± 6.0 1539 ± 308 139 12.4 ± 6.3 1562 ± 313
 Hispanic or not White 123 12.3 ± 5.8 1661 ± 334 132 13.5 ± 6.2 1663 ± 347
P value   0.07 0.003   0.43 0.02
Overweight/obese status
 Not overweight/obese 150 12.7 ± 5.5 1569 ± 345 194 12.8 ± 6.0 1587 ± 314
 Overweight/obese 98 13.2 ± 6.5 1632 ± 315 76 13.1 ± 7.0 1666 ± 370
P value   0.66 0.12   0.78 0.03
Physical activity, hours/wk
  < 7 28 12.9 ± 5.5 1598 ± 301 26 13.6 ± 6.4 1609 ± 378
 7 to <14 54 12.6 ± 5.5 1601 ± 324 70 13.1 ± 7.0 1625 ± 362
 14 to <24 74 13.1 ± 5.8 1617 ± 328 79 12.7 ± 5.6 1651 ± 310
  ≥ 24 73 13.2 ± 6.6 1588 ± 376 63 12.4 ± 5.9 1598 ± 323
P value   0.56 0.70   0.61 0.67
Screen time, hours/day
  < 1.5 53 12.3 ± 4.3 1548 ± 313 62 11.6 ± 5.3 1576 ± 319
 1.5 to <2.5 66 12.2 ± 5.7 1627 ± 308 82 13.1 ± 5.6 1679 ± 363
 2.5 to <3.5 57 13.0 ± 5.4 1601 ± 424 56 13.2 ± 6.0 1616 ± 295
  ≥ 3.5 56 15.0 ± 7.7 1629 ± 284 47 14.1 ± 8.1 1610 ± 324
P value   0.01 0.28   0.01 0.81
Parent/guardian education level
 Did not graduate HS 36 13.2 ± 7.9 1623 ± 333 42 13.2 ± 7.3 1591 ± 355
 HS graduate/GED 81 12.4 ± 5.6 1644 ± 318 92 12.5 ± 6.3 1626 ± 356
 Post-HS education 134 13.2 ± 5.5 1560 ± 341 135 13.1 ± 6.0 1608 ± 313
P value   0.81 0.11   0.60 0.55
Household income-to-needs ratio
 Quartile 1, <0.47 46 12.0 ± 5.5 1587 ± 318 66 12.3 ± 5.9 1675 ± 311
 Quartile 2, ≥0.47 to <0.76 55 13.4 ± 5.0 1606 ± 405 58 14.6 ± 7.6 1629 ± 333
 Quartile 3, ≥0.76 to <1.12 56 13.8 ± 7.4 1631 ± 316 55 13.1 ± 6.1 1557 ± 336
 Quartile 4, ≥1.12 52 13.8 ± 6.1 1583 ± 305 55 12.1 ± 5.3 1599 ± 333
P value   0.46 0.41   0.94 0.07
Parent/guardian CES-D score
  < 16, not depressed 168 12.5 ± 4.9 1609 ± 344 163 13.0 ± 6.0 1597 ± 305
  ≥ 16, depressed 65 14.6 ± 7.6 1588 ± 317 80 12.9 ± 6.8 1688 ± 365
P value   <0.0001 0.14   0.47 0.07
  1. 1Each P value is from a separate linear mixed effects models with added sugar (% of Calorie) or sodium (mg/1000 Calories) as the outcome, the continuous variable (for ordinal characteristics) as the exposure, and total energy intake at follow-up. For nominal variables, a type III F test was used. A random intercept was specified to account for clustering by classroom