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Table 5 Offspring characteristics in the intervention and control group, PAMELA study

From: A randomized controlled trial of exercise during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes: results from the PAMELA study

Intention-to-treat analysis Intervention (n = 204) Control (n = 407)   
  n (%) p OR (95%CI)
Small-for-gestational age (SGA) 8 (3.9) 22 (5.4) 0.42 0.7 (0.3; 1.6)
Large-for-gestational-age (LGA) 24 (11.8) 53 (13.0) 0.66 0.9 (0.5; 1.5)
Birth weight (g)    0.90  
 < 2500 12 (5.9) 20 (4.9)   1.2 (0.6; 2.5)
 ≥ 4000 9 (4.4) 21 (5.2)   0.9 (0.4; 1.9)
  mean (SD)   MD (95%CI)
Birth weight (g) 3.234 ± 511 3.254 ± 467 0.63 19.7 (−61.5;100.9)
Birth length (cm) 48.2 ± 2.6 48.4 ± 2.2 0.33 0.2 (−0.2;0.6)
Head circumference (cm) 34.1 ± 1.8 34.2 ± 1.6 0.34 0.1 (−0.2;0.4)
Per protocol analysis (> = 70% of exercise sessions) n = 85 n = 407   
  n (%)   OR (95%CI)
Small-for-gestational age (SGA) 4 (4.7) 22 (5.4) 0.79 0.86 (0.3; 2.6)
Large-for-gestational-age (LGA) 10 (11.8) 53 (13.0) 0.75 0.9 (0.4; 1.8)
Birth weight (g)    0.68  
 < 2500 5 (5.9) 20 (4.9)   1.22 (0.44-3.35)
 ≥ 4000 5 (5.9) 21 (5.2)   1.16 (0.42-3.18)
  mean (SD)   MD (95%CI)
Birth weight (g) 3.300 ± 474 3.254 ± 467 0.41 −46.5 (−156.1; 63.1)
Birth length (cm) 48.6 ± 2.4 48.5 ± 2.2 0.52 −0.2 (−0.7; 0.4)
Head circumference (cm) 34.2 ± 1.6 34.2 ± 1.6 0.96 0.0 (−0.4;0.4)
Sensitivity analysis (100% of exercise sessions) 1 n = 23 n = 407   
  n (%)   OR (95%CI)
Small-for-gestational age (SGA) 2 (8.7) 22 (5.4) 0.50 1.7 (0.4; 7.6)
Large-for-gestational-age (LGA) 2. (8.7) 53 (13.0) 0.55 0.6 (0.1; 2.8)
Birth weight (g)    0.53  
 < 2500 2 (8.7) 20 (4.9)   1.74 (0.38-7.96)
 ≥ 4000 21 (5.2)  
  mean (SD)   MD (95%CI)
Birth weight (g) 3.244 ± 424 3.254 ± 467 0.62 0.5 (−145.8; 245.5)
Birth length (cm) 48.4 ± 2.0 48.5 ± 2.2 0.96 0.0 (−0.9;0.9)
Head circumference (cm) 34.0 ± 1.0 34.2 ± 1.6 0.54 0.2 (−0.5;0.9)
  1. ǂ8 participants in the intervention group was not captured in the perinatal study and 1 had invalid data for offspring characteristics
  2. 19 participants in the control group was not captured in the perinatal study
  3. a1 participant adherent to the PAMELA protocol was not captured in the perinatal study
  4. 1At least 48 sessions of the total exercise program
  5. OR odds ratio, MD mean difference, p > .05, CI confidence interval, g grams, cm centimeters