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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants

From: Cost-effectiveness of healthy eating and/or physical activity promotion in pregnant women at increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: economic evaluation alongside the DALI study, a European multicenter randomized controlled trial

Variable Usual Care
N = 104
Complete
N = 41
Incomplete
N = 63
HE + PA
N = 107
Complete
N = 48
Incomplete
N = 59
HE
N = 114
Complete
N = 51
Incomplete
N = 63
PA
N = 110
Complete
N = 46
Incomplete
N = 64
Age, y, mean ± SD 31.8 ± 5.6 32.1 ± 6.1 31.5 ± 5.2 31.9 ± 5.3 33.3 ± 4.7 30.7 ± 5.4 32.5 ± 5.5 32.9 ± 4.7 32.1 ± 6.1 31.7 ± 5.1 33.0 ± 4.4 30.7 ± 5.4
Country N (%)
 Netherlands 8 (8%) 3 (7%) 5 (8%) 10 (9%) 8 (17%) 2 (3%) 8 (7%) 3 (6%) 5 (8%) 9 (8%) 7 (15%) 2 (3%)
 Belgium 7 (6%) 2 (5%) 5 (8%) 11 (10%) 4 (8%) 7 (12%) 11 (10%) 4 (8%) 7 (11%) 10 (9%) 2 (4%) 8 (13%)
 United Kingdom 11 (11%) 4 (10%) 7 (11%) 10 (9%) 5 (10%) 5 (8%) 13 (11%) 6 (12%) 7 (11%) 11 (10%) 4 (9%) 7 (11%)
 Denmark 27 (26%) 9 (22%) 18 (29%) 25 (23%) 6 (13%) 19 (32%) 25 (22%) 7 (14%) 18 (29%) 25 (23%) 4 (9%) 21 (33%)
 Italy 14 (13%) 3 (7%) 11 (17%) 13 (12%) 7 (15%) 6 (10%) 14 (12%) 8 (16%) 6 (10%) 15 (14%) 8 (17%) 7 (11%)
 Spain 9 (9%) 7 (17%) 1 (2%) 10 (9%) 7 (15%) 3 (5%) 10 (9%) 6 (12%) 4 (6%) 9 (8%) 7 (15%) 2 (3%)
 Ireland 10 (10%) 2 (5%) 8 (13%) 10 (9%) 3 (6%) 7 (12%) 12 (11%) 3 (6%) 9 (14%) 13 (12%) 5 (11%) 8 (13%)
 Poland 10 (10%) 7 (17%) 3 (5%) 7 (7%) 4 (8%) 3 (5%) 10 (9%) 6 (12%) 4 (6%) 11 (10%) 5 (11%) 6 (9%)
 Austria 11 (11%) 5 (12%) 6 (19%) 11 (10%) 4 (8%) 2 (3%) 11 (10%) 8 (16%) 3 (5%) 9 (8%) 4 (9%) 5 (8%)
Having a partner N (%) 99 (95%) 38 (93%) 61 (97%) 99 (93%) 47 (98%) 52 (88%) 109 (96%) 50 (98%) 59 (94%) 103 (94%) 43 (93%) 60 (94%)
Multiparous, N (%) 49 (47%) 16 (39%) 33 (52%) 56 (52%) 25 (52%) 31 (53%) 65 (57%) 33 (65%) 32 (51%) 51 (46%) 26 (57%) 25 (39%)
European descent, N (%) 93 (89%) 34 (83%) 59 (94%) 94 (88%) 42 (88%) 52 (88%) 96 (84%) 45 (88%) 51 (81%) 94 (86%) 37 (80%) 57 (89%)
Higher education, N (%) 53 (52%) 21 (51%) 33 (53%) 58 (54%) 29 (60%) 29 (49%) 65 (57%) 29 (57%) 36 (57%) 60 (55%) 26 (57%) 34 (53%)
History of GDM, N (%) 3 (3%) 1 (2%) 2 (3%) 4 (4%) 2 (4%) 2 (3%) 7 (6%) 4 (8%) 3 (5%) 4 (4%) 1 (2%) 3 (5%)
Gestation on entry, weeks, mean ± SD 15.2 ± 2.4 14.9 ± 2.6 15.3 ± 2.1 15.2 ± 2.2 15.1 ± 2.1 15.3 ± 2.3 15.3 ± 2.4 15.4 ± 2.5 15.3 ± 2.4 15.5 ± 2.3 15.0 ± 2.6 15.9 ± 2.0
Pre-pregnancy weight, kg, mean ± SD 92.0 ± 11.5 91.1 ± 11.8 92.6 ± 11.4 93.3 ± 13.7 91.4 ± 14.6 94.7 ± 12.9 92.5 ± 13.6 89.9 ± 11.1 95.5 ± 15.1 92.7 ± 13.4 92.1 ± 13.8 93.1 ± 13.1
Weight at entry, kg, mean ± SD 94.2 ± 12.6 93.0 ± 12.0 94.9 ± 13.0 95.2 ± 13.8 93.8 ± 15.4 96.2 ± 12.3 94.8 ± 13.2 92.1 ± 10.8 97.0 ± 14.5 94.6 ± 12.8 94.1 ± 90.1 95.1 ± 12.5
Height, cm, mean ± SD 165.9 ± 6.7 165.7 ± 6.9 165.9 ± 6.6 166.0 ± 6.6 165.4 ± 7.3 166.4 ± 6.1 165.1 ± 6.6 163.9 ± 6.7 166.1 ± 6.4 165.6 ± 7.2 165.5 ± 6.7 165.7 ± 7.5
BMI at entry, kg/m2, mean ± SD 34.2 ± 3.9 34.8 ± 2.8 34.5 ± 4.4 34.5 ± 4.0 34.2 ± 3.9 34.7 ± 4.0 34.7 ± 4.2 34.3 ± 3.5 35.1 ± 4.7 34.4 ± 3.8 34.3 ± 3.9 34.6 ± 3.7
Fasting glucose, mmol/l, mean ± SD 4.7 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.3 4.7 ± 0.3 4.5 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.4 4.7 ± 0.4 4.5 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.4 4.5 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.4
HOMA-IR, mean ± SD 1.0 ± 0.6 1.1 ± 0.5 1.0 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.4
Utility value, mean ± SD 0.86 ± 0.02 0.87 ± 0.03 0.85 ± 0.02 0.89 ± 0.01 0.90 ± 0.02 0.88 ± 0.02 0.86 ± 0.01 0.86 ± 0.02 0.87 ± 0.02 0.85 ± 0.02 0.84 ± 0.03 0.86 ± 0.02
  1. Abbreviations: N: Number; SD: Standard Deviation; GDM: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, kg: kilogram; m: meter; cm: centimetre; BMI; Body Mass Index; mmol/l; millimol per liter; HOMA-IR; HOMA index – Insulin Resistence