Skip to main content

Table 3 Mean cost per participant and adjusted mean cost differences (main analysis – Societal perspective)

From: Cost-effectiveness of healthy eating and/or physical activity promotion in pregnant women at increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: economic evaluation alongside the DALI study, a European multicenter randomized controlled trial

Cost category Usual Care
(n = 104); mean (SEM)
HE + PA
(n = 110); mean (SEM)
HE + PA versus Usual Care
∆C (95%CI)
HE
(n = 114); mean (SEM)
HE versus Usual Care
∆C (95%CI)
PA
(n = 107); mean (SEM)
PA versus Usual Care
∆C (95%CI)
35–37 weeks
Intervention 0 (0) 436 (7) 436 (416 to 455) 430 (8) 430 (411 to 449) 426 (8) 426 (407 to 445)
Medical 475 (59) 530 (97) 62 (−142 to 296) 398 (47) −66 (−225 to 71) 382 (32) −83 (−222 to 37)
 Primary healthcare 180 (15) 141 (15) −39 (−75 to −3) 148 (13) −25 (−56 to 5) 148 (12) −28 (−60 to 4)
  Secondary healthcare 159 (20) 155 (24) −1 (−56 to 55) 158 (21) 4 (−50 to 58) 173 (21) 14 (−39 to 68)
 Medication 137 (45) 234 (83) 99 (−70 to 306) 91 (34) −42 (−163 to 60) 61 (15) −71 (−182 to 8)
Absenteeism 2235 (484) 2032 (415) −102 (−1260 to 975) 2511 (446) 264 (−847 to 1341) 2608 (533) 386 (−808 to 1539)
Travel 26 (3) 22 (4) −3 (−10 to 5) 21 (2) −4 (−10 to 2) 27 (5) 1 (−7 to 11)
TOTAL 2736 (494) 3020 (439) 380 (−811 to 1510) 3361 (450) 648 (−482 to 1759) 3444 (539) 710 (−486 to 1875)
Cost category Control
(n = 104); mean (SEM)
HE + PA
(n = 110); mean (SEM)
∆C (95%CI) HE
(n = 114); mean (SEM)
∆C (95%CI) PA
(n = 107); mean (SEM)
∆C (95%CI)
After delivery
Intervention 0 (0) 436 (7) 436 (416 to 455) 430 (8) 430 (411 to 449) 426 (8) 426 (407 to 445)
Medical 7646 (737) 5983 (513) −1490 (−3164 to 129) 6986 (902) −504 (−2386 to 1642) 5189 (416) −2286 (−3386 to −841)
 Primary healthcare 235 (18) 197 (19) −42 (−86 to 0) 202 (15) −20 (−61 to 24) 202 (15) −31 (−72 to 8)
 Delivery-related 6962 (713) 5165 (466) −1614 (−3201 to 109) 6334 (898) −471 (−2290 to 1645) 4552 (393) −2242 (−3779 to −871)
 Secondary healthcare - other 262 (24) 240 (32) −23 (−93 to 54) 266 (28) 9 (−59 to 80) 284 (32) 22 (−49 to 100)
 Medication 187 (67) 381 (125) 188 (−58 to 490) 173 (53) −18 (−198 to 135) 151 (44) −36 (−202 to 103)
Absenteeism 3567 (729) 2921 (522) −567 (−2194 to 955) 4295 (763) 676 (−1048 to 2429) 5252 (825) 709 (−1102 to 2532)
Travel 36 (3) 34 (5) −3 (−12 to 9) 37 (5) 1 (−8 to 12) 39 (6) 2 (−8 to 15)
TOTAL 11,249 (1035) 9374 (725) −1627 (−4000 to 556) 11,749 (1172) 653 (−1997 to 3343) 9907 (885) −1155 (−3473 to 1142)
  1. Abbreviations: n Number, SEM Standard Error of the Mean, C Costs