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Table 3 Adjusted mean frequency for consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and artificially sweetened beverages (times/week) according to time, gender, grade level and the different indicators of socioeconomic status

From: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and artificially sweetened beverages from childhood to adulthood in relation to socioeconomic status – 15 years follow-up in Norway

  2001   2005   2016   Interaction
SES*TIME
In total   
Mean CI 95% Mean CI 95% Mean CI 95% p-value Mean CI 95% p-valueb
Sugar-sweetened beverages 2.8 (2.5;3.0) 2.5 (2.3;2.8) 1.3 (1.1;1.5) < 0.001 a    
 Parental education 2001        0.389    0.001
  High 2.6 (2.2;2.9) 2.1 (1.8;2.5) 1.0 (0.7;1.3)   1.9 (1.6;2.1)  
  Low 3.0 (2.6;3.2) 2.8 (2.5;3.2) 1.4 (1.1;1.6)   2.4 (2.1;2.6)
  Difference 0.4   0.7   0.4    0.5  
 Educational intentions 2005        0.580    < 0.001
  High 2.5 (2.2;2.8) 2.2 (1.9;2.5) 1.0 (0.8;1.3)   1.9 (1.7;2.1)  
  Low 3.0 (2.7;3.4) 2.8 (2.5;3.3) 1.5 (1.2;1.8)   2.5 (2.2;2.7)
  Difference 0.5   0.6   0.5    0.6  
 Education 2016        0.148    < 0.001
  High 2.7 (2.4;2.9) 2.3 (2.1;2.6) 1.0 (0.7;1.2)   2.0 (1.8;2.2)  
  Low 3.1 (2.8;3.5) 2.9 (2.5;3.3) 1.9 (1.6;2.2)   2.7 (2.4;2.9)
  Difference 0.4   0.6   0.9    0.7  
 Household income 2001        0.636    0.177
  High 2.6 (2.3;3.0) 2.4 (2.1;2.8) 1.0 (0.7;1.3)   2.0 (1.7;2.3)  
  Low 2.9 (2.5;3.3) 2.5 (2.1;2.8) 1.3 (1.0;1.6)   2.2 (2.0;2.5)
  Difference 0.3   0.1   0.3    0.2  
 Income 2016        0.187    0.038
  High 2.7 (2.4;3.0) 2.5 (2.1;2.8) 1.0 (0.7;1.3)   2.0 (1.8;2.3)  
  Low 2.9 (2.6;3.2) 2.6 (2.2;2.9) 1.6 (1.3;1.9)   2.4 (2.1;2.6)
  Difference 0.2   0.1   0.6    0.4  
Artificially sweetened beverages 1.1 (1.0;1.3) 1.2 (1.0;1.4) 1.6 (1.4;1.8) 0.002 a    
 Parental education 2001        0.054    0.553
  High 0.9 (0.7;1.2) 1.1 (0.8;1.4) 1.8 (1.4;2.1)   1.3 (1.1;1.5)  
  Low 1.3 (1.0;1.5) 1.3 (1.0;1.6) 1.5 (1.1;1.8)   1.3 (1.1;1.5)
  Difference 0.4   0.2   0.3    0.0  
 Educational intentions 2005        0.996    0.038
  High 1.0 (0.8;1.2) 1.1 (0.9;1.4) 1.4 (1.2;1.7)   1.2 (1.0;1.4)  
  Low 1.3 (1.0;1.6) 1.4 (1.1;1.7) 1.7 (1.4;2.1)   1.5 (1.3;1.7)
  Difference 0.3   0.3   0.3    0.3  
 Education 2016        0.799    0.972
  High 1.2 (1.0;1.4) 1.2 (1.0;1.5) 1.5 (1.3;1.8)   1.3 (1.1;1.5)  
  Low 1.1 (0.8;1.4) 1.2 (0.8;1.5) 1.6 (1.3;2.0)   1.3 (1.1;1.5)
  Difference 0.1   0.0   0.1    0.0  
 Household income 2001        0.342    0.872
  High 1.0 (0.7;1.2) 1.3 (0.1;1.6) 1.5 (1.2;1.8)   1.3 (1.1;1.5)  
  Low 1.2 (0.9;1.5) 1.1 (0.7;1.4) 1.6 (1.2;2.0)   1.3 (1.0;1.5)
  Difference 0.2   0.2   0.1    0.0  
 Income 2016        0.671    0.216
  High 1.3 (1.0;1.5) 1.4 (1.1;1.7) 1.7 (1.3;2.0)   1.4 (1.2;1.6)  
  Low 1.2 (0.9;1.4) 1.1 (0.8;1.4) 1.5 (1.2;1.9)   1.3 (1.0;1.5)
  Difference 0.1   0.3   0.2    0.1  
  1. ap-value TIME
  2. bp-value SES indicator
  3. Multilevel repeated measures adjusted for time, gender, grade level and different indicators of socioeconomic status (one separate model for each indicator)
  4. Statistical significant results at level p ≤ 0.05 are presented in bold