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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs) and 99% confidence intervals from structural equation models with prediction of reported health behaviors and outcomes from previous and concurrent food insecurity

From: Hungry to learn: the prevalence and effects of food insecurity on health behaviors and outcomes over time among a diverse sample of university freshmen

   Previous Food Insecurity Concurrent Food Insecurity
   OR 99% CI OR 99% CI
Weight status      
 Overweight/obese Yes 0.56 (0.21,1.45) 1.68 (0.69,4.12)
Eating behaviors      
 Breakfast consumption ≥4 times /week 1.03 (0.68,1.54) 0.67 (0.46,0.99)*
 Evening meal consumption 7 times /week 0.93 (0.58,1.49) 0.55 (0.36,0.86)*
 Fast food consumption ≥2 times /week 1.06 (0.68,1.65) 1.25 (0.83,1.88)
 Fruit/vegetable consumption ≥ 4 servings/day 1.08 (0.72,1.62) 0.86 (0.58,1.25)
 DSQa – fruits and vegetables > 2 cups/day 1.11 (0.73,1.67) 0.76 (0.52,1.12)
 DSQa - dairy > 1.5 cups/day 1.27 (0.84,1.92) 0.81 (0.55,1.19)
 DSQa – added sugars >  16 tsp./day 1.10 (0.73,1.67) 0.91 (0.61,1.34)
 DSQa – sugar sweetened beverages > 6 tsp./day 0.95 (0.63,1.45) 0.90 (0.60,1.34)
 DSQa – whole grains >.65 oz./day 1.00 (0.68,1.46) 1.07 (0.74,1.53)
 DSQa - fiber > 15 g/day 1.05 (0.68,1.63) 0.88 (0.58,1.34)
 DSQa - calcium > 900 mg/day 1.21 (0.77,1.90) 0.98 (0.64,1.49)
 Eating habits on campus Healthy 0.84 (0.56,1.27) 0.68 (0.46,1.00)*
 Eating habits off campus Healthy 0.83 (0.55,1.25) 0.87 (0.59,1.28)
Alcohol behaviors      
 Drink alcohol Yes 1.09 (0.66,1.83) 1.27 (0.78,2.08)
 Binge drinking Yes 0.94 (0.57,1.56) 1.33 (0.83,2.13)
Physical activity (PA) and leisure time behaviors     
 Moderate-vigorous PA > 30 mins/day 0.94 (0.63,1.40) 0.95 (0.65,1.38)
 PA habits on campus Healthy 1.16 (0.75,1.79) 0.66 (0.44,1.00)*
 PA habits off campus Healthy 0.99 (0.65,1.50) 0.68 (0.46,1.01)
 Screen time >  195 mins/day 1.36 (0.88, 2.10) 0.76 (0.51, 1.13)
Sleep quality      
 Enough sleep ≥5 times /week 0.72 (0.45,1.14) 0.69 (0.45,1.07)
 Wake up too early ≥1 times /week 1.17 (0.74,1.87) 1.00 (0.64,1.57)
 Feel tired during the day ≥4 times /week 1.14 (0.78,1.68) 1.39 (0.97,1.98)
Mental health outcomes      
 Perceived stress Highb 1.42 (0.95,2.13) 1.69 (1.16,2.46)*
 Depressed mood Highc 1.14 (0.75,1.74) 1.98 (1.34,2.91)*
 Anxiety Diagnosed or Treated 2.06 (0.92,4.62) 1.20 (0.55,2.59)
  1. aDSQ—Dietary screener questionnaire
  2. bPast month perceived stress score computed as sum of responses to 4 items with a 4-point response scale; High was defined as score > 8
  3. cPast month depressed mood score computed as sum of responses to 6 items with a 4-point response scale; High was defined as score > 2
  4. *indicates statistical significance at p ≤ 0.01