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Table 4 Associationsa between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and daily nutrient density, energy intake and density of daily snacks in women (N overall sample = 84,962; Nsnacking = 62,209) and men (Noverall sample = 23,491; Nsnacking = 15,359)

From: Socio-economic and demographic factors associated with snacking behavior in a large sample of French adults

  Women Men
Nutrient densityb of snacks Energy density of snacks (kcal/100 g) Energy intake from daily snacks (kcal) Nutrient densityb of snacks Energy density of snacks (kcal/100 g) Energy intake from daily snacks (kcal)
Mean SE p value Mean SE P value Mean SE P value Mean SE p value Mean SE P value Mean SE P value
Age class ≤30y 73.0 3.5 < 0.0001 237.5 2.1 < 0.0001 266.3 2.6 < 0.0001 96.6 6.6 < 0.0001 225.7 4.3 0.004 340.9 6.9 < 0.0001
31-45 102.9 3.4   231.5 2.0   242.3 2.6   122.4 5.9   229.3 3.9   305.3 6.2  
46-60 111.5 3.4   223.4 2.0   229.8 2.6   114.7 6.0   223.9 4.0   275.6 6.3  
>60y 92.1 4.6   218.6 2.7   219.6 3.4   91.7 6.7   213 4.4   256.6 7.0  
Presence of child in the household No child 99.9 2.9 0.0007 220.5 1.7 < 0.0001 241.7 2.2 0.05 102.3 4.8 0.1 217.9 3.1 0.005 308.0 5.0 < 0.0001
At least one child 89.9 3.5   234.9 2.1   237.4 2.6   110.4 6.0   228 3.9   281.2 6.3 < 0.0001
Educational level Postgraduate level 99.4 3.5 0.5 236.2 2.1 < 0.0001 229.3 2.6 <.0001 99.0 5.8 0.08 230.1 3.8 0.008 286 6.1 0.2
Undergraduate level 97.0 3.1   231.7 1.9   232.2 2.3   95.8 5.6   231.4 3.7   292.5 5.9  
Secondary school 95.2 2.8   225.8 1.7   238.7 2.1   99.4 4.7   219.9 3.0   300.4 4.9  
Primary school 88 7.7   217.3 4.6   257.9 5.8   131.2 12.9   210.5 8.5   299.5 13.5  
Household income per consumption unit > 2700 euros 111.4 3.97 < 0.0001 231.8 2.4 < 0.0001 220.1 3.0 < 0.0001 130.0 6.6 < 0.0001 227.1 4.3 0.1 271.9 6.9 < 0.0001
1800-2700 euros 101.6 3.75   232.0 2.2   233.3 2.8   107.6 6.3   220.3 4.1   286.2 6.6  
1200-1800 euros 91.0 3.5   229.9 2.1   240.3 2.6   106.0 6.0   226.9 3.9   284.3 6.3  
< 1200 euros 85.2 3.66   219.9 2.2   259.5 2.8   96.3 6.9   216.7 4.5   325.2 7.3  
Unwilling to declare 85.3 4.13   225.0 2.5   244.6 3.1   91.8 9.1   223.9 5.9   305.4 9.5  
Occupation class Managerial staff 110.5 3.28 < 0.0001 230.7 2.0 0.2 220.3 2.5 < 0.0001 130.1 5.3 0.0001 222.9 3.5 0.9 261.1 5.5 < 0.0001
Self-employed 101.1 6.97   225.3 4.2   232.2 5.2   121.4 10.4   227.3 6.8   291.7 10.8  
Intermediate profession 94.6 3.11   230.2 1.9   235.2 2.3   106.4 5.9   219.8 3.8   274.2 6.1  
Employee 92.6 2.87   225.9 1.7   240.2 2.2   100.5 6.8   221.4 4.4   295 7.1  
Manual worker 90.3 8.99   224.4 5.3   252.7 6.8   91.7 10.1   222.6 6.5   316.4 10.5  
Never employed 80.2 6.51   230 3.8   256.7 4.9   88.1 14.9   223.9 9.6   329.1 15.7  
  1. aUsing analysis of covariance adjusted on total energy intake. The demographic and socio-economic factors were included simultaneously in the models
  2. bCalculated using the NRF9.3100kcal score
  3. cData used in the analysis were collected for each participant at inclusion in the cohort