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Table 2 Dietary intake according to level of education in Australian adults in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and the 2011–13 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Surveya

From: Are dietary inequalities among Australian adults changing? a nationally representative analysis of dietary change according to socioeconomic position between 1995 and 2011–13

  OVERALL, mean [95% CI]
Low education Medium education High education  
1995
n = 4875
2011–13
n = 2295
1995
n = 3785
2011–13
n = 3791
1995
n = 617
2011–13
n = 2121
p interaction SEP*Time
Energy (kJ) 9195 [9063, 9327] 8776 [8579, 8974]*** 9549 [9397, 9700] 8669 [8525, 8813]*** 9861 [9488, 10,235] 8991 [8790, 9193]*** 0.007
Carbohydrate (%E) 45.1 [44.8, 45.5] 44.5 [43.9, 45.2] 45.4 [45.0, 45.8] 43.2 [42.7, 43.7]*** 44.6 [43.6, 45.6] 42.5 [41.9, 43.2]*** 0.001
Total sugars (%E) 19.9 [19.5, 20.2] 20.0 [19.4, 20.5] 19.7 [19.4, 20.1] 19.2 [18.9, 19.6] 18.8 [17.9, 19.7] 18.3 [17.8, 18.8] 0.34
Protein (%E) 16.9 [16.8, 17.1] 18.3 [17.9, 18.7] 16.7 [16.5, 16.8] 18.4 [18.1, 18.6] 16.3 [15.9, 16.7] 18.3 [17.9, 18.6] 0.17
Fat (%E) 32.1 [31.8, 32.4] 30.8 [30.3, 31.4] 31.2 [30.9, 31.5] 30.7 [30.3, 31.1] 32.0 [31.2, 32.8] 31.3 [30.8, 31.8] 0.19
SFA (%E) 12.5 [12.4, 12.7] 11.9 [11.7, 12.2] 12.2 [12.0, 12.4] 11.4 [11.2, 11.6] 12.4 [12.0, 12.8] 11.4 [11.1, 11.6] 0.35
MUFA (%E) 11.7 [11.5, 11.8] 11.6 [11.4, 11.9] 11.3 [11.2, 11.5] 11.7 [11.5, 11.9]** 11.7 [11.3, 12.1] 12.1 [11.9, 12.3] 0.036
PUFA (%E) 4.9 [4.8, 5.0] 4.5 [4.4, 4.7]*** 4.8 [4.7, 4.9] 4.8 [4.7, 4.9] 4.9 [4.7, 5.1] 5.0 [4.9, 5.2] 0.0001
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ) 2.1 [2.0, 2.1] 2.6 [2.6, 2.7] 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] 2.8 [2.7, 2.8] 2.2 [2.1, 2.3] 2.9 [2.8, 3.0] 0.22
  Probability [95% CI]
n = 3718 n = 2295 n = 2877 n = 3792 n = 483 n = 2122 p interaction
SEP*Time
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d) 0.49 [0.47, 0.51] 0.44 [0.41, 0.47] 0.52 [0.50, 0.55] 0.46 [0.44, 0.48] 0.57 [0.52, 0.63] 0.53 [0.50, 0.56] 0.68
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d) 0.20 [0.19, 0.22] 0.18 [0.15, 0.20] 0.18 [0.16, 0.20] 0.19 [0.17, 0.21] 0.16 [0.12, 0.20] 0.19 [0.17, 0.22] 0.05
  MEN, mean [95% CI]
Low education Medium education High education  
1995
n = 2172
2011–13
n = 936
1995
n = 2001
2011–13
n = 2017
1995
n = 325
2011–13
n = 944
p interaction
SEP*Time
Energy (kJ) 10,995
[10,781, 11,209]
10,242 [9915, 10,568] 11,240 [11,020, 11,460] 9981 [9771, 10,191] 11,525 [10,961, 12,089] 10,174 [9844, 10,504] 0.09
Carbohydrate (%E) 44.2 [43.7, 44.7] 44.2 [43.3, 45.1] 44.7 [44.2, 45.2] 43.1 [42.5, 43.7] 43.8 [42.5, 45.1] 42.7 [41.8, 43.6] 0.06
Total sugars (%E) 19.5 [19.0, 20.0] 19.3 [18.5, 20.1] 18.9 [18.5, 19.4] 18.8 [18.3, 19.3] 17.8 [16.7, 18.9] 17.4 [16.7, 18.1] 0.97
Protein (%E) 16.8 [16.6, 17.1] 18.2 [17.6, 18.7] 16.6 [16.4, 16.9] 18.1 [17.8, 18.5] 16.4 [15.8, 16.9] 18.2 [17.7, 18.7] 0.58
Fat (%E) 32.1 [31.7, 32.5] 30.8 [30.1, 31.6] 31.3 [30.9, 31.7] 30.3 [29.8, 30.8] 32.1 [31.1, 33.1] 30.8 [30.1, 31.6] 0.88
SFA (%E) 12.6 [12.4, 12.8] 12.0 [11.6, 12.4] 12.4 [12.1, 12.6] 11.4 [11.2, 11.7] 12.4 [11.8, 13.0] 11.2 [10.9, 11.5] 0.22
MUFA (%E) 11.8 [11.6, 12.0] 11.6 [11.3, 12.0] 11.5 [11.3, 11.6] 11.6 [11.4, 11.8] 11.8 [11.4, 12.3] 12.1 [11.7, 12.4] 0.36
PUFA (%E) 4.9 [4.7, 5.0] 4.5 [4.3, 4.7] 4.6 [4.5, 4.7] 4.6 [4.5, 4.8] 5.0 [4.7, 5.3] 4.9 [4.7, 5.1] 0.05
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ) 1.9 [1.9, 2.0] 2.4 [2.4, 2.5] 2.0 [1.9, 2.0] 2.6 [2.5, 2.7] 2.0 [2.0, 2.1] 2.7 [2.6, 2.8] 0.09
  Probability [95% CI]
n = 1622 n = 936 n = 1485 n = 2017 n = 239 n = 945 p interaction
SEP*Time
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d) 0.45 [0.42, 0.48] 0.38 [0.34, 0.42] 0.48 [0.45, 0.51] 0.40 [0.37, 0.43] 0.53 [0.45, 0.60] 0.48 [0.43, 0.52] 0.83
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d) 0.18 [0.16, 0.20] 0.16 [0.13, 0.19] 0.14 [0.12, 0.16] 0.16 [0.14, 0.18] 0.14 [0.09, 0.20] 0.16 [0.13, 0.19] 0.26
  WOMEN, mean [95% CI]
Low education Medium education High education  
1995
n = 2703
2011–13
n = 1359
1995
n = 1784
2011–13
n = 1774
1995
n = 292
2011–13
n = 1177
p interaction
SEP*Time
Energy (kJ) 7278 [7151, 7404] 7080 [6867, 7292] 7801 [7617, 7985] 7421 [7239, 7602] 8115 [7778, 8452] 7760 [7527, 7994] 0.55
Carbohydrate (%E) 46.0 [45.6, 46.4] 45.0 [44.1, 45.9]* 46.2 [45.7, 46.8] 43.2 [42.5, 43.9]*** 45.6 [44.2, 47.1] 42.4 [41.6, 43.3]*** 0.004
Total sugars (%E) 20.3 [18.9, 20.7] 20.6 [19.8, 21.4] 20.6 [20.1, 21.1] 19.7 [19.1, 20.2] 20.1 [18.7, 21.4] 19.3 [18.6, 19.9] 0.09
Protein (%E) 17.0 [16.8, 17.2] 18.4 [17.9, 18.9] 16.7 [16.4, 17.0] 18.7 [18.3, 19.1] 16.1 [15.6, 16.7] 18.4 [17.9, 18.8] 0.10
Fat (%E) 32.1 [31.7, 32.5] 30.9 [30.1, 31.6] 31.1 [30.6, 31.6] 31.1 [30.5, 31.7] 31.7 [30.5, 32.9] 31.7 [31.1, 32.4] 0.05
SFA (%E) 12.5 [12.3, 12.7] 11.8 [11.5, 12.2] 12.0 [11.8, 12.3] 11.4 [11.1, 11.7] 12.4 [11.8, 13.0] 11.5 [11.2, 11.9] 0.88
MUFA (%E) 11.6 [11.4, 11.7] 11.6 [11.3, 12.0] 11.1 [10.9, 11.3] 11.9 [11.6, 12.1]*** 11.5 [10.9, 12.0] 12.1 [11.8, 12.5]* 0.031
PUFA (%E) 5.0 [4.9, 5.1] 4.6 [4.4, 4.8]** 4.9 [4.8, 5.1] 5.1 [4.9, 5.3] 4.8 [4.5, 5.1] 5.2 [5.0, 5.4]* 0.0001
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ) 2.2 [2.2, 2.3] 2.8 [2.7, 2.9] 2.3 [2.3, 2.4] 2.9 [2.8, 3.0] 2.4 [2.3, 2.5] 3.0 [2.9, 3.2] 0.87
  Probability [95%CI]
n = 2096 n = 1359 n = 1392 n = 1775 n = 244 n = 1177 p interaction
SEP*Time
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d) 0.53 [0.51, 0.56] 0.51 [0.47, 0.54] 0.57 [0.54, 0.60] 0.52 [0.49, 0.55] 0.62 [0.55, 0.69] 0.59 [0.55, 0.62] 0.78
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d) 0.23 [0.20, 0.25] 0.19 [0.17, 0.22] 0.22 [0.19, 0.25] 0.22 [0.19, 0.24] 0.18 [0.12, 0.23] 0.23 [0.20, 0.26] 0.09
  1. aAbbreviations: %E % of energy, SEP socioeconomic position
  2. Asterisks indicate significantly different compared to 1995 value *p < 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. Values represent survey-weighted, covariate adjusted means (or probabilities where indicated) and 95% CI
  4. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex/gender (except in stratified analyses), and smoking. Where results of the overall F test were statistically significant, pairwise comparisons were performed to examine change in intakes over time according to educational level
  5. Low education: less than secondary; Medium education: secondary/diploma/trade; High education: tertiary
  6. Bold data indicates statistically significant differences (p  < 0.05)