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Table 3 Dietary intake according to equivalized household income in Australian adults in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and the 2011–13 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Surveya

From: Are dietary inequalities among Australian adults changing? a nationally representative analysis of dietary change according to socioeconomic position between 1995 and 2011–13

  OVERALL, mean [95% CI]
Low income Medium income High income  
1995
n = 2607
2011–13
n = 2534
1995
n = 3524
2011–13
n = 3110
1995
n = 3146
2011–13
n = 2563
p interaction
SEP*Time
Energy (kJ) 9025 [8846, 9204] 8564 [8377, 8751] 9395 [9241, 9550] 8756 [8598, 8915] 9695 [9531, 9860] 8995 [8813, 9178] 0.36
Carbohydrate (%E) 46.1 [45.6, 46.6] 45.2 [44.6, 45.8]* 45.5 [45.1, 45.9] 43.8 [43.3, 44.2]*** 44.2 [43.8, 44.6] 41.3 [40.7, 41.9]*** 0.001
Total sugars (%E) 19.9 [19.4, 20.4] 19.9 [19.3, 20.4] 19.9 [19.6, 20.3] 19.3 [18.9, 19.7] 19.4 [19.0, 19.7] 18.5 [18.0, 18.9] 0.16
Protein (%E) 16.6 [16.4, 16.9] 17.9 [17.6, 18.2] 16.7 [16.5, 16.9] 18.3 [18.0, 18.5] 17.0 [16.7, 17.2] 18.8 [18.4, 19.1] 0.19
Fat (%E) 31.5 [31.1, 31.9] 30.8 [30.3, 31.3] 31.9 [31.6, 32.3] 30.7 [30.3, 31.2] 31.7 [31.3, 32.0] 31.1 [30.6, 31.6] 0.30
SFA (%E) 12.2 [11.9, 12.4] 11.8 [11.6, 12.1] 12.6 [12.4, 12.8] 11.5 [11.3, 11.7]*** 12.4 [12.2, 12.6] 11.3 [11.1, 11.6]*** 0.001
MUFA (%E) 11.5 [11.3, 11.7] 11.6 [11.4, 11.9] 11.6 [11.4, 11.7] 11.7 [11.5, 11.9] 11.5 [11.4, 11.7] 12.0 [11.8, 12.2] 0.19
PUFA (%E) 4.9 [4.8, 5.0] 4.6 [4.4, 4.7]*** 4.9 [4.8, 5.0] 4.8 [4.7, 4.9] 4.8 [4.7, 4.9] 5.0 [4.9, 5.2]* 0.0001
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ) 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] 2.8 [2.7, 2.9] 2.1 [2.0, 2.1] 2.7 [2.7, 2.8] 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] 2.8 [2.7, 2.8] 0.49
  Probability [95% CI]
n = 1919 n = 2535 n = 2732 n = 3111 n = 2427 n = 2563 p interaction
SEP*Time
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d) 0.46 [0.43, 0.49] 0.48 [0.45, 0.51] 0.52 [0.50, 0.55] 0.45 [0.43, 0.48]*** 0.54 [0.51, 0.56] 0.49 [0.47, 0.52]* 0.002
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d) 0.17 [0.15, 0.19] 0.19 [0.17, 0.21] 0.20 [0.18, 0.22] 0.18 [0.17, 0.20] 0.20 [0.18, 0.22] 0.18 [0.16, 0.20] 0.16
  MEN, mean [95% CI]
Low income Medium income High income  
1995
n = 1115
2011–13
n = 1014
1995
n = 1731
2011–13
n = 1484
1995
n = 1652
2011–13
n = 1399
p interaction
SEP*Time
Energy (kJ) 10,690 [10,390, 10,990] 9874 [9561, 10,186] 11,263 [11,028, 11,499] 10,014 [9764, 10,264] 11,350 [11,111, 11,589] 10,316 [10,053, 10,579] 0.28
Carbohydrate (%E) 44.9 [44.2, 45.6] 44.7 [43.8, 45.6] 44.7 [44.2, 45.3] 44.0 [43.4, 44.7] 43.7 [43.2, 44.3] 41.3 [40.5, 42.1]*** 0.003
Total sugars (%E) 19.0 [18.4, 19.7] 18.8 [18.0, 19.5] 19.3 [18.8, 19.8] 19.0 [18.4, 19.6] 18.9 [18.4, 19.5] 18.0 [17.4, 18.6] 0.45
Protein (%E) 16.5 [16.1, 16.9] 17.5 [17.0, 18.0] 16.7 [16.4, 16.9] 18.0 [17.7, 18.4] 16.9 [16.6, 17.2] 18.7 [18.2, 19.3] 0.12
Fat (%E) 31.5 [31.0, 32.1] 31.0 [30.3, 31.7] 32.2 [31.7, 32.6] 30.2 [29.7, 30.8]*** 31.4 [31.0, 31.9] 30.6 [29.9, 31.2]* 0.028
SFA (%E) 12.2 [11.9, 12.5] 12.2 [11.8, 12.5] 12.8 [12.5, 13.0] 11.3 [11.1, 11.6]*** 12.3 [12.1, 12.6] 11.3 [10.9, 11.6]*** < 0.0001
MUFA (%E) 11.7 [11.4, 11.9] 11.7 [11.4, 12.1] 11.7 [11.5, 11.9] 11.6 [11.3, 11.9] 11.6 [11.4, 11.8] 11.8 [11.6, 12.1] 0.29
PUFA (%E) 4.8 [4.6, 5.0] 4.4 [4.2, 4.6]** 4.8 [4.7, 5.0] 4.7 [4.5, 4.8] 4.7 [4.6, 4.8] 4.8 [4.6, 5.0] 0.017
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ) 2.0 [1.9, 2.0] 2.6 [2.5, 2.7] 1.9 [1.9, 2.0] 2.6 [2.5, 2.7] 2.0 [1.9, 2.0] 2.6 [2.5, 2.6] 0.26
  Probability [95% CI]
n = 803 n = 1015 n = 1315 n = 1484 n = 1228 n = 1399 p interaction
SEP*Time
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d) 0.41 [0.37, 0.45] 0.44 [0.39, 0.48] 0.49 [0.46, 0.52] 0.39 [0.36, 0.42]*** 0.49 [0.46, 0.52] 0.43 [0.39, 0.46]** 0.003
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d) 0.14 [0.11, 0.17] 0.18 [0.15, 0.22] 0.18 [0.15, 0.20] 0.16 [0.14, 0.19] 0.15 [0.13, 0.18] 0.14 [0.12, 0.17] 0.07
  WOMEN, mean [95% CI]
Low income Medium income High income  
1995
n = 1492
2011–13
n = 1520
1995
n = 1793
2011–13
n = 1626
1995
n = 1494
2011–13
n = 1164
p interaction
SEP*Time
Energy (kJ) 7229 [7058, 7400] 7121 [6917, 7325] 7436 [7274, 7598] 7466 [7286, 7647] 7950 [7775, 8126] 7675 [7434, 7917] 0.29
Carbohydrate (%E) 47.1 [46.5, 47.8] 45.7 [44.9, 46.5]** 46.3 [45.8, 46.8] 43.5 [42.7, 44.2]*** 44.7 [44.2, 45.3] 41.2 [40.3, 42.1]*** 0.017
Total sugars (%E) 20.7 [20.1, 21.3] 20.9 [20.2, 21.6] 20.6 [20.1, 21.1] 19.6 [19.0, 20.2] 19.8 [19.3, 20.3] 18.9 [18.3, 19.6] 0.13
Protein (%E) 16.7 [16.4, 17.0] 18.3 [17.8, 18.7] 16.8 [16.5, 17.1] 18.5 [18.1, 18.9] 17.0 [16.7, 17.3] 18.8 [18.3, 19.3] 0.86
Fat (%E) 31.5 [30.9, 32.1] 30.6 [29.9, 31.3] 31.7 [31.2, 32.1] 31.3 [30.7, 31.9] 31.9 [31.4, 32.5] 31.7 [31.0, 32.4] 0.51
SFA (%E) 12.1 [11.8, 12.4] 11.6 [11.2, 11.9] 12.3 [12.1, 12.6] 11.6 [11.3, 11.9] 12.5 [12.2, 12.8] 11.4 [11.1, 11.8] 0.23
MUFA (%E) 11.3 [11.1, 11.6] 11.6 [11.2, 11.9] 11.4 [11.2, 11.6] 11.9 [11.6, 12.2] 11.5 [11.2, 11.7] 12.2 [11.8, 12.6] 0.23
PUFA (%E) 5.0 [4.9, 5.2] 4.7 [4.5, 4.9]* 4.9 [4.8, 5.0] 5.0 [4.8, 5.2] 4.9 [4.8, 5.1] 5.3 [5.0, 5.5]* 0.001
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ) 2.3 [2.2, 2.4] 3.0 [2.9, 3.1] 2.3 [2.2, 2.3] 2.8 [2.8, 2.9] 2.3 [2.2, 2.4] 3.0 [2.9, 3.1] 0.34
  Probability [95% CI]
n = 1116 n = 1520 n = 1417 n = 1627 n = 1199 n = 1164 p interaction
SEP*Time
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d) 0.52 [0.48, 0.55] 0.53 [0.49, 0.56] 0.56 [0.53, 0.59] 0.52 [0.49, 0.55] 0.59 [0.55, 0.62] 0.57 [0.53, 0.61] 0.34
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d) 0.20 [0.18, 0.23] 0.20 [0.18, 0.23] 0.22 [0.19, 0.25] 0.21 [0.18, 0.23] 0.24 [0.21, 0.27] 0.23 [0.20, 0.26] 0.84
  1. aAbbreviations: %E % of energy, SEP socioeconomic position
  2. Asterisks indicate significantly different compared to 1995 value *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. Values represent survey-weighted, covariate adjusted means (or probabilities where indicated) and 95% CI
  4. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex/gender (except in stratified analyses), and smoking. Where results of the overall F test were statistically significant, pairwise comparisons were performed to examine change in intakes over time according to household income
  5. Income is expressed as deciles of gross equivalized household income. Low income: deciles 1–3; Medium income: deciles 4–7; High income: deciles 8–10