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Table 4 Dietary intake according to area-level disadvantage in Australian adults in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey and the 2011–13 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Surveya

From: Are dietary inequalities among Australian adults changing? a nationally representative analysis of dietary change according to socioeconomic position between 1995 and 2011–13

  OVERALL, mean [95% CI]
Quintile 1
Most disadvantaged
Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Least disadvantaged
 
1995
n = 1778
2011–13
n = 1582
1995
n = 1787
2011–13
n = 1719
1995
n = 1810
2011–13
n = 1633
1995
n = 1953
2011–13
n = 1453
1995
n = 1949
2011–13
n = 1820
p interaction
SEP*Time
Energy (kJ) 9073 [8859, 9287] 8628 [8393, 8864] 9383 [9164, 9602] 8607 [8384, 8829] 9482 [9260, 9704] 8892 [8683, 9100] 9405 [9201, 9610] 8813 [8571, 9054] 9562 [9356, 9768] 8945 [8738, 9151] 0.69
Carbohydrate (%E) 45.6 [45.0, 46.1] 44.5 [43.8, 45.2]* 45.4 [44.8, 46.0] 44.1 [43.4, 44.8]** 44.8 [44.3, 45.4] 43.7 [43.0, 44.5]* 45.3 [44.8, 45.8] 42.7 [42.0, 43.4]*** 45.1 [44.5, 45.6] 41.8 [41.2, 42.5]*** 0.001
Total sugars (%E) 20.3 [19.7, 20.9] 19.6 [18.9, 20.2] 19.9 [19.4, 20.4] 19.3 [18.7, 19.9] 19.6 [19.1, 20.1] 19.7 [19.1, 20.2] 19.6 [19.1, 20.1] 19.3 [18.7, 19.9] 19.4 [18.9, 19.9] 18.1 [17.6, 18.6] 0.17
Protein (%E) 16.9 [16.6, 17.2] 18.0 [17.6, 18.4] 16.7 [16.4, 16.9] 18.3 [17.8, 18.7] 16.8 [16.5, 17.0] 18.3 [17.9, 18.7] 16.8 [16.6, 17.1] 18.6 [18.2, 19.0] 16.8 [16.5, 17.0] 18.4 [18.1, 18.8] 0.39
Fat (%E) 31.9 [31.4, 32.4] 30.8 [30.2, 31.4]** 31.9 [31.4, 32.5] 30.5 [29.9, 31.1]*** 32.1 [31.6, 32.6] 30.7 [30.2, 31.3]*** 31.3 [30.9, 31.8] 31.4 [30.7, 32.0] 31.4 [31.0, 31.9] 31.0 [30.4, 31.5] 0.026
SFA (%E) 12.4 [12.2, 12.7] 11.7 [11.3, 12.0] 12.5 [12.2, 12.8] 11.4 [11.2, 11.7] 12.5 [12.3, 12.8] 11.6 [11.4, 11.9] 12.3 [12.0, 12.5] 11.6 [11.3, 11.9] 12.3 [12.1, 12.6] 11.3 [11.1, 11.6] 0.72
MUFA (%E) 11.6 [11.4, 11.8] 11.8 [11.5, 12.1] 11.7 [11.4, 11.9] 11.6 [11.3, 11.9] 11.7 [11.5, 11.9] 11.7 [11.5, 12.0] 11.3 [11.1, 11.5] 12.0 [11.7, 12.3]*** 11.4 [11.2, 11.6] 11.9 [11.6, 12.2]** 0.010
PUFA (%E) 5.0 [4.8, 5.1] 4.6 [4.5, 4.8]** 4.8 [4.7, 5.0] 4.7 [4.6, 4.9] 4.9 [4.8, 5.1] 4.7 [4.5, 4.8]* 4.8 [4.7, 4.9] 5.0 [4.8, 5.2] 4.8 [4.7, 4.9] 5.0 [4.8, 5.1] 0.002
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ) 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] 2.7 [2.6, 2.8] 2.1 [2.0, 2.1] 2.8 [2.7, 2.9] 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] 2.7 [2.6, 2.8] 2.2 [2.1, 2.2] 2.8 [2.7, 2.9] 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] 2.8 [2.7, 2.9] 0.54
  Probability [95% CI]
n = 1325 n = 1582 n = 1355 n = 1721 n = 1378 n = 1633 n = 1510 n = 1453 n = 1510 n = 1820 p interaction
SEP*Time
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d) 0.48 [0.44, 0.51] 0.46 [0.43, 0.50] 0.54 [0.50, 0.57] 0.47 [0.44, 0.50] 0.51 [0.47, 0.54] 0.48 [0.45, 0.51] 0.52 [0.49, 0.55] 0.49 [0.46, 0.52] 0.51 [0.48, 0.55] 0.47 [0.44, 0.50] 0.60
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d) 0.18 [0.15, 0.20] 0.19 [0.17, 0.22] 0.18 [0.16, 0.21] 0.19 [0.17, 0.22] 0.21 [0.18, 0.25] 0.20 [0.18, 0.23] 0.20 [0.17, 0.23] 0.19 [0.16, 0.21] 0.18 [0.15, 0.20] 0.16 [0.14, 0.18] 0.59
  MEN, mean [95% CI]
Quintile 1
Most disadvantaged
Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Least disadvantaged
 
1995
n = 829
2011–13
n = 717
1995
n = 863
2011–13
n = 819
1995
n = 881
2011–13
n = 779
1995
n = 943
2011–13
n = 719
1995
n = 982
2011–13
n = 863
p interaction
SEP*Time
Energy (kJ) 10,751 [10,416, 11,086] 10,067 [9680, 10,454] 11,142 [10,790, 11,493] 9803 [9452, 10,155] 11,380 [11,042, 11,718] 10,148 [9825, 10,470] 11,152 [10,843, 11,461] 10,322 [9963, 10,682] 11,275 [10,961, 11,589] 10,101 [9782, 10,420] 0.28
Carbohydrate (%E) 44.6 [43.8, 45.4] 43.9 [42.9, 44.9] 44.5 [43.8, 45.3] 44.1 [43.1, 45.0] 43.7 [42.9, 44.4] 43.6 [42.6, 44.5] 44.7 [44.0, 45.5] 42.5 [41.5, 43.5]*** 44.4 [43.7, 45.2] 42.2 [41.3, 43.1]*** 0.034
Total sugars (%E) 19.7 [19.0, 20.5] 18.3 [17.4, 19.2] 19.1 [18.4, 19.8] 19.1 [18.2, 20.1] 18.9 [18.2, 19.7] 18.8 [18.0, 19.6] 19.1 [18.4, 19.8] 18.5 [17.7, 19.4] 18.7 [18.0, 19.5] 18.1 [17.4, 18.8] 0.44
Protein (%E) 16.8 [16.3, 17.3] 17.8 [17.2, 18.4] 16.8 [16.4, 17.1] 18.1 [17.4, 18.8] 16.8 [16.4, 17.2] 18.4 [17.8, 18.9] 16.6 [16.2, 16.9] 18.5 [17.9, 19.0] 16.7 [16.3, 17.0] 18.0 [17.5, 18.5] 0.47
Fat (%E) 32.2 [31.6, 32.8] 30.6 [29.7, 31.4] 31.9 [31.3, 32.5] 30.0 [29.2, 30.9] 32.1 [31.4, 32.7 30.6 [29.9, 31.3] 31.5 [30.9, 32.1] 31.2 [30.4, 32.0] 31.3 [30.7, 31.9] 30.3 [29.6, 31.1] 0.22
SFA (%E) 12.6 [12.3, 13.0] 11.6 [11.1, 12.0] 12.4 [12.1, 12.8] 11.3 [10.9, 11.7] 12.5 [12.2, 12.9] 11.6 [11.2, 12.0] 12.5 [12.2, 12.9] 11.7 [11.3, 12.2] 12.3 [12.0, 12.6] 11.4 [11.0, 11.8] 0.94
MUFA (%E) 11.8 [11.5, 12.1] 11.9 [11.4, 12.3] 11.8 [11.5, 12.1] 11.5 [11.1, 11.9] 11.8 [11.5, 12.1] 11.7 [11.3, 12.0] 11.4 [11.2, 11.7] 12.0 [11.6, 12.4] 11.5 [11.2, 11.7] 11.6 [11.3, 12.0] 0.13
PUFA (%E) 4.8 [4.6, 5.0] 4.5 [4.3. 4.7] 4.8 [4.6, 5.0] 4.6 [4.4, 4.8] 4.9 [4.7, 5.1] 4.7 [4.5, 4.9] 4.7 [4.5, 4.9] 4.8 [4.6, 5.1] 4.7 [4.5, 4.8] 4.7 [4.4, 4.9] 0.26
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ) 2.0 [1.9, 2.0] 2.6 [2.4, 2.7] 1.9 [1.9, 2.0] 2.6 [2.5, 2.7] 2.0 [1.9, 2.0] 2.6 [2.5, 2.7] 2.0 [1.9, 2.0] 2.6 [2.5, 2.7] 2.0 [1.9, 2.0] 2.6 [2.5, 2.7] 0.99
  Probability [95% CI]
n = 611 n = 717 n = 635 n = 820 n = 656 n = 779 n = 706 n = 719 n = 738 n = 863 p interaction
SEP*Time
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d) 0.42 [0.38, 0.47] 0.40 [0.35, 0.45] 0.51 [0.46, 0.55] 0.40 [0.36, 0.44] 0.48 [0.43, 0.52] 0.42 [0.37, 0.46] 0.48 [0.44, 0.53] 0.46 [0.41, 0.50] 0.46 [0.42, 0.51] 0.40 [0.35, 0.44] 0.39
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d) 0.13 [0.10, 0.16] 0.17 [0.14, 0.21] 0.17 [0.14, 0.21] 0.18 [0.14, 0.22] 0.18 [0.15, 0.22] 0.16 [0.13, 0.20] 0.17 [0.14, 0.21] 0.17 [0.13, 0.20] 0.14 [0.11, 0.17] 0.12 [0.09, 0.15] 0.27
  WOMEN, mean [95% CI]
Quintile 1
Most disadvantaged
Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Least disadvantaged
 
1995
n = 949
2011–13
n = 865
1995
n = 924
2011–13
n = 900
1995
n = 929
2011–13
n = 854
1995
n = 1010
2011–13
n = 734
1995
n = 967
2011–13
n = 957
p interaction
SEP*Time
Energy (kJ) 7307 [7074, 7540] 7130 [6874, 7385] 7533 [7319, 7748] 7338 [7092, 7585] 7461 [7220, 7703] 7592 [7341, 7843] 7551 [7340, 7762] 7230 [6929, 7531] 7740 [7538, 7943] 7741 [7482, 8001] 0.41
Carbohydrate (%E) 46.5 [45.7, 47.3] 45.2 [44.2, 46.2]* 46.3 [45.5, 47.1] 44.2 [43.2, 45.1]** 46.1 [45.4, 46.7] 44.0 [42.9, 45.0]** 45.9 [45.3, 46.6] 42.9 [41.8, 44.0]*** 45.8 [45.1, 46.5]*** 41.5 [40.5, 42.5] 0.008
Total sugars (%E) 20.8 [20.1, 21.6] 20.9 [20.0, 21.8] 20.7 [20.0, 21.5] 19.4 [18.7, 20.1]** 20.3 [19.7, 21.0] 20.6 [19.7, 21.4] 20.1 [19.5, 20.8] 20.2 [19.3, 21.0] 20.0 [19.4, 20.7] 18.3 [17.5, 19.0]*** 0.016
Protein (%E) 17.0 [16.6, 17.4] 18.3 [17.7, 18.8] 16.6 [16.2, 16.9] 18.4 [17.9, 18.9] 16.7 [16.3, 17.1] 18.2 [17.7, 18.8] 17.0 [16.7, 17.4] 18.8 [18.3, 19.3] 16.9 [16.5, 17.2] 18.9 [18.3, 19.4] 0.62
Fat (%E) 31.7 [31.0, 32.4] 31.0 [30.1, 31.9] 32.0 [31.3, 32.8] 31.0 [30.2, 31.8] 32.1 [31.5, 32.8] 30.9 [30.1, 31.7] 31.1 [30.5, 31.8] 31.5 [30.6, 32.5] 31.6 [31.0, 32.2] 31.6 [30.8, 32.4] 0.14
SFA (%E) 12.2 [11.8, 12.5] 11.8 [11.3, 12.3] 12.5 [12.1, 12.9] 11.6 [11.2, 12.0] 12.5 [12.2, 12.9] 11.7 [11.2, 12.1] 12.0 [11.7, 12.3] 11.4 [11.0, 11.9] 12.3 [12.0, 12.7] 11.3 [10.9, 11.7] 0.51
MUFA (%E) 11.4 [11.1, 11.7] 11.7 [11.3, 12.1] 11.6 [11.2, 11.9] 11.7 [11.4, 12.1] 11.6 [11.3, 11.9] 11.8 [11.4, 12.1] 11.2 [10.9, 11.5] 12.1 [11.6, 12.5] 11.3 [11.0, 11.5] 12.2 [11.8, 12.6] 0.07
PUFA (%E) 5.1 [4.9, 5.3] 4.8 [4.5, 5.0] 4.9 [4.7, 5.1] 4.9 [4.7, 5.1] 4.9 [4.7, 5.2] 4.7 [4.5, 4.9] 4.9 [4.7, 5.1] 5.3 [4.9, 5.6]* 4.9 [4.7, 5.1] 5.3 [5.0, 5.5]* 0.004
Fiber density (g/1000 kJ) 2.3 [2.2, 2.3] 2.9 [2.8, 3.0] 2.2 [2.1, 2.3] 3.0 [2.8, 3.2] 2.3 [2.2, 2.4] 2.9 [2.7, 3.0] 2.4 [2.3, 2.4] 3.0 [2.9, 3.2] 2.3 [2.2, 2.3] 2.9 [2.8, 3.1] 0.31
  Probability [95% CI]
n = 714 n = 865 n = 720 n = 901 n = 722 n = 854 n = 804 n = 734 n = 772 n = 957 p interaction
SEP*Time
Fruit (≥ 2 serves/d) 0.53 [0.49, 0.57] 0.53 [0.48, 0.57] 0.57 [0.52, 0.61] 0.55 [0.51, 0.59] 0.54 [0.49, 0.58] 0.54 [0.49, 0.58] 0.56 [0.52, 0.60] 0.52 [0.48, 0.57] 0.57 [0.53, 0.61] 0.54 [0.50, 0.58] 0.90
Vegetables (≥ 4 serves/d) 0.23 [0.19, 0.26] 0.22 [0.18, 0.26] 0.20 [0.16, 0.23] 0.20 [0.17, 0.24] 0.24 [0.20, 0.29] 0.24 [0.20, 0.28] 0.23 [0.19, 0.26] 0.21 [0.17, 0.25] 0.21 [0.18, 0.25] 0.19 [0.16, 0.23] 0.95
  1. aAbbreviations: %E % of energy, SEP socioeconomic position
  2. Asterisks indicate significantly different compared to 1995 value *p < 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. Macronutrients are reported as % of total energy (%E)
  4. Values represent survey-weighted, covariate adjusted means (or probabilities where indicated) and 95% CI
  5. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex/gender (except in stratified analyses), and smoking. Where results of the overall F test were statistically significant, pairwise comparisons were performed to examine change in intakes over time according to educational level
  6. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage was used to define area-level disadvantage. The index is divided into quintiles ordered from most (quintile 1) to least disadvantaged (quintile 5). Higher scores are indicative of an area with lower levels of disadvantage, such as where fewer individuals have low incomes, low educational attainment, or work in unskilled occupations
  7. Bold data indicates statistically significant differences (p  < 0.05)