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Table 1 Participant characteristics and potential determinants of young children’s objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior (n = 498)

From: Physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschoolers: a longitudinal assessment of trajectories and determinants

   Mean (SD) or percentages
  Use in analysis T0 T1
Demographic and biological variables
 Sex % boys 53.8 51.9
 Age years 3.9 (0.7) 4.9 (0.7)
 Birth weight grams (per 100 g) 3290 (570) 3280 (530)
 Chronic health condition % with chronic health condition 7.5 7.1
 BMIa % overweight or obese 24.1 18.5
 Gross motor skillsa Composite z-score 0.0 (1.0) 0.1 (1.1)
 Siblings % having older siblings 43.2 44.5
 Parental BMI % at least one overweight or obese parent 52.2 52.5
 SES Range 16–90; increases with higher SES 63.1 (15.5) 62.7 (15.6)
 Family structure % single parent households 10.4 9.8
Psychological, cognitive and emotional variables
 Self-regulationa Range 0-30; increases with better self-regulation 19.2 (9.5) 23.3 (8.0)
 Psychological difficulties Range 0-40; increases with more difficulties 8.8 (4.3) 8.5 (4.7)
 Emotionality temperament Range 1-5; increases with more pronounced trait 2.8 (0.7) 2.8 (0.7)
 Activity temperament Range 1-5; increases with more pronounced trait 3.8 (0.7) 3.7 (0.7)
 Shyness temperament Range 1-5; increases with more pronounced trait 2.4 (0.7) 2.4 (0.7)
 Parenting stress Range 5-90; increases with more parenting stress 37.5 (7.5) 37.6 (7.6)
 Cognitive performancea Composite z-score 0.0 (1.0) 0.1 (0.9)
Behavioral variables
 Sleep duration Hours 10.8 (0.6) 10.8 (0.5)
 Play frequency % more than once/week 91.2 93.1
Social and cultural variables
 Parental sedentary behavior Hours 2.8 [2.0, 4.5]b 3.0 [2.0, 5.0]b
 Parental sports club membership % at least one parent is member 32.0 32.8
 Parental physical activity % at least one parent is active 63.4 61.6
 Parental Involvement in child physical activity % at least one parent is involved 65.0 52.3
 Mode of transport to childcare % active 40.7 48.1
 Parental tobacco use % at least one parent smokes 24.1 24.4
 Parental alcohol consumption % at least one parent consumes large amounts 5.5 4.5
Environmental variables
 Time outdoors Hours 2.0 [1.5, 3.0]b 2.0 [1.5, 3.0]b
 Fixed toys Range 0-7 1.6 (1.5) 1.6 (1.6)
 Portable toys Range 0-8 4.5 (1.5) 4.3 (1.5)
 Days at childcare Range 0-5 2.8 (1.2) 2.5 (1.3)
 Living area per person m2 30.8 (9.1) 30.8 (8.9)
 Neighborhood safety Range 0-44; increases with increasing concerns 12.6 (7.0) 12.4 (7.2)
 Dog % dog owner 6.9 5.5
 Season % spring and fall months 75.3 77.9
 Region % urban 34.9 39.4
  1. PA physical activity, SB sedentary behavior, BMI body mass index, SES socio-economic status
  2. aDirectly measured (all other information is parent-report)
  3. bMedian and inter-quartile range presented for skewed distribution