Skip to main content

Table 3 Full models: associations of potential determinants with total physical activity (TPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB)a

From: Physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschoolers: a longitudinal assessment of trajectories and determinants

  TPA [cpm] MVPA [min/day] SB [min/day]
  β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value
Demographic and biological variables   
 Sex 46.7 (24.4, 68.9) ≤0.001 14.4 (10.1 18.7) ≤0.001 −5.1 (−13.1, 2.8) 0.208
 Age 32.5 (12.4, 52.6) 0.002 8.4 (4.6, 12.1) ≤0.001 0.4 (−6.5, 7.3) 0.906
 Birth weight 2.2 (0.2, 4.2) 0.035 0.4 (0.1, 0.8) 0.030 −0.6 (−1.4, 0.1) 0.077
 Chronic health condition 4.1 (−38.4, 46.5) 0.850 0.2 (−7.5, 7.9) 0.959 −2.2 (−17.6, 13.2) 0.779
 BMI 9.8 (−16.0, 35.6) 0.457 2.7 (−2.0, 7.5) 0.261 −5.1 (−14.6, 4.3) 0.286
 Gross motor skills 13.4 (2.1, 24.7) 0.021 2.9 (0.9, 4.8) 0.005 −1.3 (−5.2, 2.6) 0.515
 Siblings 4.8 (−17.9, 27.6) 0.676 1.8 (−2.7, 6.3) 0.431 −1.6 (−9.5, 6.3) 0.694
 Parental BMI −0.9 (−33.2, 24.4) 0.941 0.8 (−3.4, 5.1) 0.706 −2.1 (−10.2, 5.9) 0.604
 SES 0.1 (−0.8, 1) 0.849 0.0 (−0.2, 0.1) 0.837 −0.2 (−0.5, 0.2) 0.332
 Family structure 50.8 (6.1, 95.6) 0.027 6.2 (−2.1, 14.5) 0.142 −17.3 (−33.7, −0.9) 0.039
Psychological, cognitive and emotional variables   
 Self-regulation −0.2 (−1.6, 1.1) 0.724 0.0 (−0.3, 0.2) 0.896 0.2 (−0.2, 0.7) 0.302
 Psychological difficulties 1.4 (−1.7, 4.4) 0.373 0.4 (−0.2, 0.9) 0.210 −0.2 (−1.3, 0.9) 0.712
 Emotionality temperament −12.1 (−30.2, 6.1) 0.191 −2.2 (−5.6, 1.2) 0.200 4.5 (−1.6, 10.5) 0.148
 Activity temperament 30.6 (12.7, 48.5) ≤0.001 5.4 (1.9, 8.9) 0.002 −11.8 (−18.3, −5.3) < 0.001
 Shyness temperament −10.4 (−26.9, 6.2) 0.218 −1.5 (−4.6, 1.5) 0.317 1.4 (−4.2, 7.1) 0.623
 Parenting stress 2.0 (0.4, 3.6) 0.015 0.2 (−0.1, 0.5) 0.126 −0.4 (−1.0, 0.1) 0.130
 Cognitive performance −0.6 (−12.3, 11.1) 0.916 0.7 (−1.4, 2.9) 0.501 0.8 (−3.4, 5.0) 0.714
Behavioral variables   
 Sleep duration −5.3 (−24.6, 13.9) 0.585 −1.1 (−4.6, 2.4) 0.614 −1.7 (−8.2, 4.8) 0.599
 Play frequency −10.3 (−50.2, 29.5) 0.609 −1.7 (−8.6, 5.2) 0.911 5.0 (−11.2, 21.3) 0.540
Social and cultural variables   
 Parental sedentary behavior −0.1 (−3.8, 3.7) 0.976 0.1 (−0.6, 0.8) 0.791 0.2 (−1.1, 1.5) 0.800
 Parental sports club membership 10.2 (−14.1, 34.4) 0.410 0.4 (−4.0, 4.8) 0.854 −4.5 (−13.0, 4.1) 0.307
 Parental physical activity −8.7 (−31.9, 14.5) 0.459 −1.3 (−5.6, 3.0) 0.547 −0.7 (−9.2, 7.7) 0.866
 Parental Involvement in child PA 8.0 (−14.1, 30.1) 0.477 1.3 (−2.8, 5.4) 0.535 −2.7 (−10.6, 5.2) 0.496
 Transport to childcare 6.2 (−15.6, 28.0) 0.576 2.0 (−2.0, 6.1) 0.326 −4.7 (−12.4, 3.0) 0.233
 Parental tobacco use −5.1 (−32.1, 21.9) 0.710 −0.3 (−5.3, 4.7) 0.897 3.3 (−6.1, 12.8) 0.487
 Parental alcohol consumption 7.3 (−40.9, 55.4) 0.765 2.6 (−6.6, 11.8) 0.580 −8.0 (−26.9, 10.9) 0.402
Environmental variables   
 Time outdoors 4.6 (−2.6, 11.8) 0.205 0.2 (−1.1, 1.5) 0.807 −1.4 (−3.9, 1.0) 0.247
 Fixed toys 3.8 (−3.7, 11.3) 0.318 0.1 (−1.3, 1.5) 0.907 −0.5 (−3.2, 2.2) 0.713
 Portable toys 4.8 (−3.5, 13.2) 0.253 0.7 (−0.7, 2.2) 0.339 −2.6 (−5.4, 0.2) 0.067
 Days at childcare 1.8 (−9.6, 13.2) 0.751 −0.1 (−2.1, 1.9) 0.924 0.7 (−3.3, 4.8) 0.726
 Living area per person 0.6 (−0.8, 2.0) 0.415 0.1 (−0.2, 0.4) 0.432 0.0 (−0.5, 0.5) 0.911
 Neighborhood safety −0.9 (−2.8, 0.9) 0.330 −0.1 (−0.5, 0.2) 0.481 0.1 (−0.5, 0.8) 0.730
 Dog 0.5 (−42.5, 43.6) 0.980 −0.8 (−8.7, 7.2) 0.853 −1.3 (−16.4, 13.8) 0.864
 Season 4.1 (−22.2, 30.5) 0.758 4.1 (−0.9, 9.0) 0.106 9.1 (−0.8, 18.9) 0.071
 Region 1.7 (−23.4, 26.8) 0.892 0.5 (−4.3, 5.2) 0.852 −1.3 (−10.4, 7.8) 0.782
  1. PA physical activity, β β-coefficient, CI confidence interval
  2. aMultivariable linear mixed models including a random intercept for each subject and for each childcare center (n = 498)