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Table 4 Final models: associations of determinants with total physical activity (TPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB)a

From: Physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschoolers: a longitudinal assessment of trajectories and determinants

  TPA [cpm] MVPA [min/day] SB [min/day]
  β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value
Demographic and biological variables
 Sex 49.8 (28.5, 71.2) ≤0.001 14.8 (10.7, 19.0) ≤0.001 −7.1 (−14.4, 0.3) 0.062
 Age 31.6 (17.6, 45.6) ≤0.001 8.9 (6.0, 11.8) ≤0.001
 Birth weight 2.3 (0.4, 4.2) 0.018 0.4 (0.1, 0.8) 0.027
 Gross motor skills 10.7 (0.1, 21.3) 0.048 2.2 (0.4, 4.2) 0.023
 Family structure 59.3 (11.7, 106.8) 0.016 −20.1 (−46.0, 5.7) 0.123
Psychological, cognitive and emotional variables
 Activity temperament 39.2 (23.2, 55.2) ≤0.001 6.4 (3.1, 9.6) ≤0.001 −12.8 (−19.1, −6.5) ≤0.001
 Parenting stress 1.8 (0.3, 3.2) 0.017 0.2 (−0.1, 0.5) 0.123
Environmental variables
 Season 2.6 (−2.8, 7.9) 0.344 11.9 (1.2, 22.6) 0.029
  1. β β-coefficient, CI confidence interval
  2. aMultivariable linear mixed models including a random intercept for each subject and for each childcare center showing all variables with P ≤ 0.1 of the respective full model (n = 498)