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Table 3 The effects of advertisement condition on the kJ intake in all children and by weight status across both media conditions

From: Sustained impact of energy-dense TV and online food advertising on children’s dietary intake: a within-subject, randomised, crossover, counter-balanced trial

  Difference in means between food and non-food ads SNACK (kJ) Difference in means between food and non-food ads LUNCH (kJ) Additional energy intake per day at the holiday camp after food advertising SNACK PLUS LUNCH (kJ)
Whole group
 All children (n = 154) 111 (434)
p = 0.002, d = 0.2
41 (397) 152 (556)
p = 0.001, d = 0.2
 Under−/normal weight (n = 129) 90 (414)
p = 0.015, d = 0.1
1 (388) 91 (521)
p = 0.05, d = 0.1
 Overweight/obesity (n = 25) 221 (521)
p = 0.045, d = 0.3
246 (389)
p = 0.004, d = 0.4
467 (631)
p = 0.001, d = 0.4
TV only
 All children (n = 76) 19 (460) 89 (413) 108 (603)
 Under−/normal weight (n = 65) 4 (427) 29 (378) 33 (522)
 Overweight/obesity (n = 11) 113 (647) 441 (456)
p = 0.009, d = 1.1
554 (858)
p = 0.058, d = 0.6
TV plus advergame
 All children (n = 78) 201 (388)
p < 0.0001, d = 0.3
–6 (377) 194 (388)
p = 0.001, d = 0.2
 Under−/normal weight (n = 64) 178 (385)
p < 0.0001, d = 0.3
−28 (398) 150 (518)
p = 0.024, d = 0.2
 Overweight/obesity (n = 14) 305 (402)
p = 0.014, d = 0.3
93 (248) 398 (398)
p = 0.002, d = 0.3
  1. Mean (kJ) (SD). All p values are two tailed. d = effect size, Cohen’s d