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Table 4 Results of structural equation models with change in BMI as outcome

From: Associations between local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake, individual-level diet, and 10-year change in body mass index and glycosylated haemoglobin in an Australian cohort

LDN: Overweight/obesity N  = 1630 Unadjusted models Adjusted models a
Fruit serves (log transformed) Estimate 95% CI P value Estimate 95% CI P value
 ΔBMI on LDN (overweight/obesity) 0.029 0.014 to 0.045 0.000 0.020 0.004 to 0.036 0.012
 ΔBMI on fruit intake(log) −0.077 − 0.125 to − 0.029 0.002 −0.029 − 0.074 to 0.015 0.198
 Fruit intake(log)on LDN (overweight/obesity) −0.017 −0.039 to 0.005 0.125 −0.018 − 0.040 to 0.004 0.114
 Indirect effect *100 0.134 −0.043 to 0.311 0.139 0.052 −0.070 to 0.145 0.274
 Total effect *100 3.060 1.507 to 4.613 0.000 2.060 0.503 to 3.616 0.010
 Model fit AIC 19,825.589 BICadj 19,856.662 AIC 19,569.671 BIC adj 19,631.817
Vegetable serves (log transformed)
 ΔBMI on LDN (overweight/obesity) 0.030 0.015 to 0.046 0.000 0.020 0.004 to 0.036 0.012
 ΔBMI on vegetable intake(log) −0.054 −0.098 to − 0.009 0.017 −0.023 −0.064 to 0.019 0.290
 Vegetable intake(log)on LDN (overweight/obesity) −0.004 −0.025 to 0.018 0.734 −0.004 − 0.026 to 0.017 0.714
 Indirect effect *100 0.020 −0.093 to 0.134 0.728 0.009 −0.039 to 0.057 0.710
 Total effect *100 3.058 1.500 to 4.617 0.000 2.019 0.436 to 3.601 0.012
 Model fit AIC 19,820.205 BICadj 19,851.278 AIC 19,557.197 BIC adj 19,619.343
Sugary Drink Intake (0 v > 0)
 ΔBMI on LDN (overweight/obesity) 0.028 0.012 to 0.043 0.000 0.019 0.004 to 0.034 0.015
 ΔBMI on sugary drink intake 0.088 0.055 to 0.122 0.000 0.044 0.011 to 0.077 0.009
 Sugary drink intake on LDN (overweight/obesity) 0.030 0.003 to 0.057 0.030 0.030 0.003 to 0.058 0.028
 Indirect effect *100 0.266 −0.011 to 0.544 0.060 0.134 −0.035 to 0.303 0.119
 Total effect *100 3.054 1.503 to 4.604 0.000 2.054 0.486 to 3.622 0.010
 Model fit AIC 20,356.077 BICadj 20,387.150 AIC 20,105.682 BIC adj 20,167.828
LDN: Insufficient fruit intake N = 1673 Unadjusted models Adjusted models a
Fruit serves (log transformed) Estimate 95% CI P value Estimate 95% CI P value
 ΔBMI on LDN (insufficient fruit intake) 0.010 − 0.003 to 0.023 0.118 0.001 −0.009 to 0.017 0.546
 ΔBMI on Fruit intake(log) −0.080 −0.127 to − 0.033 0.001 −0.032 − 0.076 to 0.013 0.161
 Fruit intake(log) on LDN (insufficient fruit intake) −0.026 −0.048 to − 0.005 0.015 −0.027 − 0.048 to − 0.006 0.012
 Indirect effect *100 0.213 0.024 to 0.401 0.027 0.086 −0.039 to 0.212 0.178
 Total effect *100 1.236 −0.084 to 2.556 0.066 0.485 −0.826 to 1.796 0.469
 Model fit AIC 20,345.591 BICadj 20,377.028 AIC 20,083.362 BIC adj 20,146.237
Vegetable serves (log transformed)
 ΔBMI on LDN (insufficient fruit intake) 0.012 −0.001 to 0.026 0.079 0.005 −0.009 to 0.018 0.502
 ΔBMI on vegetable intake(log) −0.059 −0.098 to − 0.013 0.007 −0.026 − 0.066 to 0.015 0.216
 Vegetable intake(log)on LDN (insufficient fruit intake) −0.005 −0.028 to 0.020 0.693 −0.006 − 0.030 to 0.019 0.662
 Indirect effect *100 0.029 −0.111 to 0.153 0.767 0.014 −0.048 to 0.077 0.910
 Total effect *100 1.242 −0.039 to 2.623 0.067 0.468 −0.846 to 1.783 0.485
 Model fit AIC 20,352.891 BICadj 20,384.328 AIC 20,084.015 BIC adj 20,146.889
Sugary Drink Intake (0 v > 0)
 ΔBMI on LDN (insufficient fruit intake) 0.011 −0.002 to 0.024 0.098 0.004 −0.009 to 0.017 0.503
 ΔBMI on sugary drink intake 0.087 0.054 to 0.121 0.000 0.041 0.008 to 0.075 0.016
 Sugary drink intake on LDN (insufficient fruit intake) 0.017 −0.007 to 0.041 0.157 0.018 −0.006 to 0.042 0.141
 Indirect effect *100 0.150 −0.065 to 0.365 0.172 0.074 −0.424 to 0.191 0.211
 Total effect *100 1.270 −0.054 to 2.594 0.060 0.517 −0.790 to 1.823 0.438
 Model fit AIC 20,903.070 BICadj 20,934.507 AIC 20,644.999 BIC adj 20,707.873
  1. Numbers in bold are all statistically significant with p values
  2. aAdjusted area-level income and individual-level age, sex, employment status, education, marital status, and smoking status; Abbreviations: AIC Akaiki’s Information Criterion, BIC adj sample size adjusted Bayesian Information Criterion, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, LDN local descriptive norm