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Table 6 Summary of the findings from the studies assessing biomarkers

From: Health outcomes associated with reallocations of time between sleep, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity: a systematic scoping review of isotemporal substitution studies

Study Sample Measures of sleep, SB, LPA, MVPA Outcome measures Data analysis method / reallocated time Adjustments for confounding Results
Buman et al. [48] Adults (n = 2185 – full sample; n = 923 – fasting sub-sample) from the 2005–2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – self report Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL, C-reactive protein, LDL, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, HOMA-S, HOMA-β Mekary et al. [12] / 30 min Sex, race, marital status, education, work status, income, smoking, depressive symptoms, 24-h dietary recalls estimating intakes of total energy, saturated fat, caffeine, and alcohol, a general health rating, diagnosis of cancer, malignancy, CVD, or diabetes, and current use of diabetic, antihypertensive, lipidemic, or other CVD medication. RR (95% CI)
HDL cholesterol
Sleep → MVPA: 1.044 (1.019, 1.070)
SB → MVPA: 1.046 (1.028, 1.065)
LPA → MVPA: 1.043 (1.023, 1.064)
Sleep → LPA: 1.001 (0.994, 1.008)
SB → LPA: 1.003 (0.998, 1.008)
SB → sleep: 1.002 (0.994, 1.011)
Triglycerides
Sleep → MVPA: 0.915 (0.851, 0.983)
SB → MVPA: 0.914 (0.855, 0.977)
LPA → MVPA: 0.931 (0.869, 0.998)
Sleep → LPA: 0.983 (0.964, 1.002)
SB → LPA: 0.981 (0.972, 0.991)
SB → sleep: 0.999 (0.982, 1.016)
Insulin
Sleep → MVPA: 0.893 (0.803, 0.994)
SB → MVPA: 0.874 (0.786, 0.970)
LPA → MVPA: 0.895 (0.801, 1.000)
Sleep → LPA: 0.998 (0.969, 1.029)
SB → LPA: 0.976 (0.962, 0.991)
SB → sleep: 0.978 (0.957, 1.000)
Carson et al. [49] Children and youth aged 6–17 years (n = 4169 – full sample; n = 1242 – fasting sub-sample) from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, Canada; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – self report BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, behavioural strengths and difficulties, CRF – full sample. Triglycerides,
HDL, C-reactive protein, and insulin – fasting subsample.
Chastin et al. [13] / 10 min Age, sex, and highest household education. Reallocating 10 min of MVPA to SB, LPA or sleep, resulted in a 5.1, 1.2, and 1.1% increase in BMI z score, respectively.
Reallocating 10 min of SB, LPA or sleep, to MVPA resulted in a less than 1% decrease in BMI z score.
Similar effects were noted across all health indicators.
Chastin et al. [13] Adults (n = 1937) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 cycle, USA; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – self report Blood pressure, plasma glucose and insulin, HDL, C-reactive protein, LDL, triglycerides Mekary et al. [12] / 10 min Age, sex, ethnicity/race, self-reported health, diagnosis of health conditions, educational level, social economic status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, calorie intake, caffeine and fat, medications for diabetes and/or high blood pressure. Reallocating 10 min of LPA or MVPA to sleep was associated with positive effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Reallocating 10 min of sleep to MVPA was associated with positive effects on HDL.
Reallocating 10 min of MVPA with sleep was associated with positive effects on C-reactive protein.
Reallocating 10 min of MVPA with sleep or SB was associated with detrimental effects on LDL, triglycerides, glucose and insulin level and HOMA. Similar, but smaller effects were noted when 10 min of SB was reallocated to LPA or sleep.
Reallocating 10 min of MVPA to sleep or LPA had a detrimental effect on both obesity markers, with stronger magnitude when LPA replaced MVPA.
Reallocating 10 min of SB or sleep to LPA was associated with more favourable effects on LDL, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and HOMA. The effects were more pronounced when 10 min of LPA replaced sleep than SB.
Edwardson et al. [24] Adults identified as being at high risk of impaired glucose regulation (n = 435) from the Walking Away from Diabetes randomized controlled trial, UK; cross-sectional SB, standing, stepping – thigh-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Fasting glucose, 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, 2-h insulin, HOMA-IS, Matsuda-ISI Mekary et al. [12] / 30 min Age, sex, smoking status, family history of type 2 diabetes, ethnicity, β-blockers, lipid-lowering medication and activPAL waking wear time (model 1), and waist circumference (model 2). β (95% CI)
Model 1
Fasting glucose
Prolonged SB → short SB: 1.00 (0.99, 1.00)
Prolonged SB → standing: 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 0.98 (0.97, 0.99)
Short SB → standing: 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
Short SB → stepping: 0.99 (0.98, 1.00)
2-h glucose
Prolonged SB → short SB: 0.99 (0.97, 1.01)
Prolonged SB → standing: 1.00 (0.98, 1.01)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 0.94 (0.92, 0.97)
Short SB → standing: 1.00 (0.99, 1.00)
Short SB → stepping: 0.95 (0.92, 0.97)
Fasting insulin
Prolonged SB → short SB: 0.96 (0.93, 0.99)
Prolonged SB → standing: 0.95 (0.92, 0.98)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 0.89 (0.84, 0.95)
Short SB → standing: 0.98 (0.95, 1.01)
Short SB → stepping: 0.93 (0.88, 0.98)
2-h insulin
Prolonged SB → short SB: 0.97 (0.92, 1.02)
Prolonged SB → standing: 0.94 (0.90, 0.99)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 0.85 (0.78, 0.92)
Short SB → standing: 0.98 (0.94, 1.02)
Short SB → stepping: 0.87 (0.81, 0.93)
HOMA-IS
Prolonged SB → short SB: 1.04 (1.01, 1.07)
Prolonged SB → standing: 1.06 (1.02, 1.10)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 1.15 (1.06, 1.26)
Short SB → standing: 1.02 (0.99, 1.05)
Short SB → stepping: 1.10 (1.03, 1.17)
Matsuda-ISI
Prolonged SB → short SB: 1.03 (0.99, 1.07)
Prolonged SB → standing: 1.06 (1.01, 1.11)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 1.22 (1.09, 1.35)
Short SB → standing: 1.02 (0.99, 1.06)
Short SB → stepping: 1.17 (1.07, 1.27)
Model 2
Fasting glucose
Prolonged SB → short SB: 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
Prolonged SB → standing: 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 0.99 (0.98, 1.00)
Short SB → standing: 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
Short SB → stepping: 1.00 (0.98, 1.01)
2-h glucose
Prolonged SB → short SB: 0.99 (0.97, 1.01)
Prolonged SB → standing: 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 0.95 (0.92, 0.98)
Short SB → standing: 1.00 (0.99, 1.00)
Short SB → stepping: 0.95 (0.93, 0.98)
Fasting insulin
Prolonged SB → short SB: 0.96 (0.94, 0.98)
Prolonged SB → standing: 0.96 (0.93, 0.99)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 0.93 (0.88, 0.98)
Short SB → standing: 0.99 (0.96, 1.02)
Short SB → stepping: 0.96 (0.92, 1.00)
2-h insulin
Prolonged SB → short SB: 0.97 (0.92, 1.02)
Prolonged SB → standing: 0.95 (0.91, 1.00)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 0.87 (0.80, 0.94)
Short SB → standing: 0.99 (0.95, 1.03)
Short SB → stepping: 0.90 (0.83, 0.98)
HOMA-IS
Prolonged SB → short SB: 1.04 (1.01, 1.07)
Prolonged SB → standing: 1.04 (1.01, 1.07)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 1.09 (1.01, 1.17)
Short SB → standing: 1.00 (0.97, 1.03)
Short SB → stepping: 1.05 (0.99, 1.11)
Matsuda-ISI
Prolonged SB → short SB: 1.03 (0.98, 1.08)
Prolonged SB → standing: 1.05 (1.01, 1.09)
Prolonged SB → stepping: 1.16 (1.05, 1.28)
Short SB → standing: 1.01 (0.96, 1.05)
Short SB → stepping: 1.12 (1.03, 1.22)
Ekblom-Bak et al. [51] Adults (n = 836) from the Swedish Cardio Pulmonary bioImage Study, Sweden; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MPA, VPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Triglyceride levels, HDL, blood pressure and glucose levels. Mekary et al. [12] / 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min Age, sex, education level, smoking habits, perceived psychological stress, energy intake and wear time. OR (95% CI)
10-min reallocation
High triglyceride levels
SB → LPA: 0.97 (0.94, 0.99)
SB → MPA: 0.91 (0.83, 0.99)
SB → VPA: 0.51 (0.33, 0.79)
Low HDL
SB → LPA: 0.95 (0.92, 0.98)
SB → MPA: 0.91 (0.82, 1.01)
SB → VPA: 0.34 (0.18, 0.65)
High blood pressure
SB → LPA: 1.00 (0.97, 1.02)
SB → MPA: 0.92 (0.85, 0.99)
SB → VPA: 0.77 (0.58, 1.04)
High glucose
SB → LPA: 0.99 (0.97, 1.01)
SB → MPA: 0.97 (0.91, 1.03)
SB → VPA: 0.88 (0.73, 1.07)
Ekblom-Bak et al. [52] Adults (n = 654) from the Swedish Cardio Pulmonary bioImage Study, Sweden; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, HDL Mekary et al. [12] / 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min Sex, age, education, smoking, perceived psychosocial stress. RR (95% CI)
30 min reallocation
Fasting glucose
SB → LPA: 0.998 (0.995, 1.001)
SB → MVPA: 0.991 (0.983, 0.999)
Fasting insulin
SB → LPA: 0.970 (0.954, 0.987)
SB → MVPA: 0.884 (0.844, 0.927)
HOMA-IR
SB → LPA: 0.969 (0.951, 0.987)
SB → MVPA: 0.876 (0.832, 0.923)
Fasting glucose (<  6.0 mmol·l-1)
SB → LPA: 0.980 (0.961, 0.999)
SB → MVPA: 0.894 (0.846, 0.945)
Fasting glucose (≥ 6.0 mmol·l-1)
SB → LPA: 0.937 (0.906, 0.969)
SB → MVPA: 0.889 (0.818, 0.967)
Reallocating 5 to 120 min from SB to MVPA was associated with positive effects
HOMA-IR (for participants with lower waist circumferences) and across all time lengths for participants with higher waist circumferences.
Reallocating 1 to 120 min from SB to LPA or MVPA was associated with positive effects on HOMA-IR levels (for participants with low fitness).
Reallocating 1 to 120 min from SB to MVPA was associated with positive effects
HOMA-IR levels (for participants with high levels of fitness).
Reallocating 1 to 120 min from SB to LPA or MVPA was associated with positive effects on HOMA-IR levels (for participants with high glucose levels).
Reallocating 1 to 120 min from SB to MVPA was associated with positive effects
HOMA-IR levels (for participants with normal glucose levels).
Falconer et al. [53] Adults with type 2 diabetes (n = 519) from the Early Activity in Diabetes study, UK; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed HDL Mekary et al. [12] / 30 min Age, sex, ethnic group, IMD score, accelerometer wear time, relevant diabetes or lipid-lowering drugs. β (95% CI)
HDL
SB bouts → SB nonbouts: 0.01 (− 0.02, 0.03)
SB bouts → LPA: 0.02 (0.01, 0.03)
SB bouts → MVPA: 0.03 (− 0.01, 0.08)
SB nonbouts → LPA: 0.01 (− 0.01, 0.04)
SB nonbouts → MVPA: 0.03 (− 0.02, 0.07)
LPA → MVPA: 0.02 (− 0.03, 0.06)
Hamer et al. [56] Adults (n = 445) from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort, UK; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed HDL-C, triglycerides, HbA1c Mekary et al. 2009 / 10 min Age, sex, smoking, employment grade, and current statin use. β (95% CI)
HbA1c
SB ↔ LPA: 0.001 (0.006, − 0.009)
SB ↔ MVPA: − 0.023 (− 0.043, − 0.002)
LPA ↔ MVPA: − 0.024 (− 0.047, − 0.001)
HDL-C
SB ↔ LPA: 0.005 (− 0.001, 0.01)
SB ↔ MVPA: 0.037 (0.021, 0.054)
LPA ↔ MVPA: 0.032 (0.014, 0.050)
Triglycerides
SB ↔ LPA: − 0.004 (− 0.014, 0.006)
SB ↔ MVPA: − 0.035 (− 0.061, − 0.009)
LPA ↔ MVPA: − 0.031 (− 0.060, − 0.002)
Healy et al. [58] A general population-based sample (n = 698) from the 2011/12 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study, Australia; cross-sectional SB, standing, stepping – thigh-worn accelerometers; sleep – self report Fasting glucose, HDL, LDL, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, triglycerides and 2-h plasma glucose. Mekary et al. [12] / 120 min Age, sex, contraceptive pill use, blood pressure tablets, cholesterol tablets, diabetes medication, ethnicity, occupation and employment status, income, fibre intake, energy intake, energy-adjusted fibre intake, alcohol intake, sodium intake, potassium intake, fruit and vegetable serves. RR (95% CI)
Fasting glucose
Sitting → standing: 0.98 (0.97, 1.00)
Sitting → stepping: 0.98 (0.95, 1.02)
Standing → stepping: 1.00 (0.97, 1.04)
β (95% CI)
HDL
Sitting → standing: 0.06 (0.02, 0.09)
Sitting → stepping: 0.10 (0.02, 0.18)
Standing → stepping: 0.04 (− 0.05, 0.14)
RR (95% CI)
Total/HDL-cholesterol ratio
Sitting → standing: 0.94 (0.92, 0.97)
Sitting → stepping: 0.97 (0.92, 1.03)
Standing → stepping: 1.04 (0.97, 1.11)
RR (95% CI)
Triglycerides
Sitting → standing: 0.90 (0.87, 0.94)
Sitting → stepping: 0.88 (0.78, 0.98)
Standing → stepping: 0.98 (0.86, 1.11)
RR (95% CI)
2-h plasma glucose
Sitting → standing: 0.99 (0.96, 1.02)
Sitting → stepping: 0.89 (0.84, 0.94)
Standing → stepping: 0.90 (0.84, 0.97)
Healy et al. [57] Individuals with diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 279) from the Living Well with Diabetes intervention, Australia; cross-sectional SB (prolonged SB and non-prolonged SB), LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Fasting plasma glucose Mekary et al. [12] / 30 min Age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, log HbA1c, insulin use, oral hypoglycaemic use, use of glucagon-like-peptide-1 agents, diabetes duration, income, education, weight loss aids in last 6 months, smoking status, CVD-related condition, musculoskeletal condition, depression and/or anxiety, employment, place of birth, Caucasian, energy intake, diet quality score. RR (95% CI)
Fasting blood glucose
Prolonged SB → non-prolonged SB: 1.01 (0.99, 1.03)
Prolonged SB → LPA: 0.99 (0.97, 1.00)
Prolonged SB → MVPA: 0.96 (0.90, 1.03)
Non-prolonged SB → LPA: 0.98 (0.96, 1.00)
Non-prolonged SB → MVPA: 0.96 (0.89, 1.02)
LPA → MVPA: 0.98 (0.91, 1.05)
Moore et al. [28] Youth (n = 11,588) from the International Children’s Accelerometry Database, Brazil, Europe, and USA; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MPA, VPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, HDL, LDL, glucose, insulin, triglycerides Mekary et al. [12] / not presented Accelerometer cut points. Reallocating LPA with VPA was inconsistently related to blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, HDL, or LDL with only 32 of a possible 360 associations statistically significant.
Reallocating LPA with VPA was associated with 12.6 to 27.0 pmol/l lower insulin values at the 75th to 90th percentiles.
Nilsson et al. [29] Older woman (n = 113) recruited from an newspaper ad, Sweden; cross-sectional SB (accumulated, continuous), LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Triglycerides, HDL, plasma glucose, and blood pressure Mekary et al. [12] / 10 min Medical history, self-rated health status, total energy intake, fat intake, and alcohol consumption. β (95% CI)
Clustered metabolic risk score
MVPA → LPA: 0.06 (0.01, 0.10)
MVPA → accumulated SB: 0.07 (0.02, 0.11)
MVPA → continuous SB: 0.08 (0.04, 0.13)
Clustered metabolic risk score adjusted for waist circumference
MVPA → LPA: 0.02 (− 0.02, 0.07)
MVPA → accumulated SB: 0.04 (− 0.01, 0.09)
MVPA → continuous SB: 0.05 (0.01, 0.10)
Rosique Esteban et al. [32] Adults (n = 5776) from the PREDIMED-PLUS trial, Spain; cross-sectional Sleep, SB, LPA, MVPA – self report Blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, HDL Mekary et al. [12] / 60 min Age, sex, education, marital and employment status, smoking habits, personal and family history of illness, medical conditions, medication use, and adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet. RR (95% CI)
Blood pressure
MVPA → sleep: 0.99 (0.98, 1.00)
MVPA → TV-viewing: 1.01 (0.99, 1.03)
MVPA → LPA: 0.99 (0.98, 1.00)
LPA → sleep: 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
LPA → TV-viewing: 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
Sleep → TV-viewing: 0.99 (0.97, 1.01)
Hyperglycaemia
MVPA → sleep: 0.98 (0.95, 1.01)
MVPA → TV-viewing: 0.98 (0.96, 1.00)
MVPA → LPA: 0.96 (0.93, 0.99)
LPA → sleep: 1.02 (0.99, 1.05)
LPA → TV-viewing: 1.02 (0.99, 1.05)
Sleep → TV-viewing: 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
Hypertriglyceridemia
MVPA → sleep: 0.94 (0.89, 0.99)
MVPA → TV-viewing: 0.94 (0.90, 0.98)
MVPA → LPA: 0.95 (0.88, 1.02)
LPA → sleep: 0.99 (0.93, 1.05)
LPA → TV-viewing: 0.97 (0.91, 1.03)
Sleep → TV-viewing: 0.98 (0.95, 1.01)
Low HDL
MVPA → sleep: 0.92 (0.87, 0.97)
MVPA → TV-viewing: 0.94 (0.90, 0.98)
MVPA → LPA: 0.92 (0.86, 0.98)
LPA → sleep: 0.97 (0.90, 1.04)
LPA → TV-viewing: 0.99 (0.93, 1.05)
Sleep → TV-viewing: 1.03 (1.00, 1.06)
Van der Berg et al. [35] Adults (n = 2213) from The Maastricht Study, Netherlands; cross-sectional SB, standing, stepping – thigh-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed HDL, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, triacylglycerol, 2 h post-load glucose, fasting insulin Mekary et al. [12] / 30 min Age, sex, level of education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, energy intake, mobility limitation, and prevalent cardiovascular disease OR (95% CI)
HDL
SB → standing: 0.005 (0.00, 0.01)
SB → stepping: 0.041 (0.03, 0.05)
Standing → stepping: 0.036 (0.02, 0.05)
Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio
SB → standing: 0.993 (0.99, 1.00)
SB → stepping: 0.981 (0.97, 0.99)
Standing → stepping: 0.988 (0.98, 1.00)
Triacylglycerol
SB → standing: 0.991 (0.98, 1.00)
SB → stepping: 0.975 (0.96, 0.99)
Standing → stepping: 0.984 (0.97, 1.00)
2 h post-load glucose
SB → standing: 0.999 (1.00, 1.00)
SB → stepping: 0.981 (0.97, 0.99)
Standing → stepping: 0.982 (0.97, 0.99)
Fasting insulin
SB → standing: 0.987 (0.98, 1.00)
SB → stepping: 0.970 (0.95, 0.99)
Standing → stepping: 0.983 (0.96, 1.01)
Varela-Mato et al. [37] Adult male heavy goods vehicle drivers (n = 87), from a transport company from the East Midlands, UK; cross-sectional SB, standing and stepping (LPA, MVPA) – thigh-worn accelerometers; sleep – estimated from the accelerometers and matched with the participants’ daily log Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol Mekary et al. [12] / 30 min Age, ethnicity, education levels, shift pattern, smoking, alcohol intake, fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI. β (95% CI)
Workdays
Systolic blood pressure
SB → standing: 0.6 (− 0.6, 1.9)
SB → LPA: − 1.9 (− 5.1, 1.3)
SB → MVPA: − 1.1 (− 5.5, 3.3)
SB → sleep: − 0.3 (− 0.4, 0.4)
Diastolic blood pressure
SB → standing: 0.6 (− 0.5, 1.7)
SB → LPA: − 1.8 (− 4.7, 0.9)
SB → MVPA: 0.1 (− 3.8, 4.0)
SB → sleep: − 0.2 (− 0.5, 0.2)
Fasting glucose
SB → standing: − 0.01 (− 0.1, 0.1)
SB → LPA: − 0.04 (− 0.3, 0.2)
SB → MVPA: − 0.3 (− 0.6, 0.1)
SB → sleep: − 0.04 (− 0.1, 0.02)
Triglycerides
SB → standing: 0.00 (− 0.1, 0.1)
SB → LPA: 0.06 (− 0.2, 0.3)
SB → MVPA: − 0.4 (− 0.8, 0.01)
SB → sleep: 0.02 (− 0.01, 0.05)
HDL
SB → standing: − 0.02 (− 0.06, 0.01)
SB → LPA: − 0.1 (− 0.2, − 0.01)
SB → MVPA: 0.3 (0.1, 0.4)
SB → sleep: − 0.01 (− 0.02, 0.01)
LDL
SB → standing: − 0.04 (− 0.2, 0.1)
SB → LPA: 0.2 (− 0.1, 0.6)
SB → MVPA: − 0.1 (− 0.6, 0.5)
SB → sleep: − 0.02 (− 0.07, 0.02)
Total cholesterol
SB → standing: − 0.6 (− 0.07, 0.02)
SB → LPA: 0.1 (− 0.2, 0.5)
SB → MVPA: 0.05 (− 0.4, 0.6)
SB → sleep: − 0.2 (− 0.07, 0.02)
Non-workdays
Systolic blood pressure
SB → standing: − 0.3 (− 1.1, 0.5)
SB → LPA: 0.3 (− 1.3, 1.9)
SB → MVPA: − 0.01 (− 3.7,3.7)
SB → sleep: − 0.6 (− 1.2, 0.1)
Diastolic blood pressure
SB → standing: − 0.5 (− 1.2, 0.2)
SB → LPA: − 0.5 (− 1.9, 0.9)
SB → MVPA: 0.3 (− 2.9, 3.6)
SB → sleep: − 0.3 (− 0.9, 0.2)
Fasting glucose
SB → standing: 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.1)
SB → LPA: 0.03 (− 0.1, 0.2)
SB → MVPA: − 0.3 (− 0.7, 0.05)
SB → sleep: − 0.00 (− 0.06, 0.06)
Triglycerides
SB → standing: − 0.03 (− 0.1,0.04)
SB → LPA: 0.07 (− 0.07, 0.2)
SB → MVPA: − 0.2 (− 0.5, 1.0)
SB → sleep: − 0.02 (− 0.08, 0.04)
HDL
SB → standing: 0.02 (− 0.01,0.05)
SB → LPA: − 0.05 (− 0.1, 0.01)
SB → MVPA: 0.07 (− 1.0, 0.2)
SB → sleep: 0.0 (− 0.02, 0.03)
LDL
SB → standing: − 0.08 (− 0.2,0.01)
SB → LPA: 0.0 (− 0.2, 0.2)
SB → MVPA: − 0.01 (− 0.5, 0.4)
SB → sleep: − 0.04 (− 0.2, 0.04)
Total cholesterol
SB → standing: − 0.08 (− 0.2,0.02)
SB → LPA: − 0.03 (− 0.2, 0.1)
SB → MVPA: 0.03 (− 0.4, 0.5)
SB → sleep: − 0.03 (− 0.1, 0.04)
Wang et al. [74] Individuals (n = 1699) with diabetes mellitus from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008–2011), USA; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Blood pressure, HbA1c, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides. Mekary et al. [12] / 30, 60 min Age, sex, annual household income, education, employment status, Hispanic/Latino background, field centre, smoking, alcohol consumption, duration of Diabetes mellitus, health insurance status, alternative health eating index-2010, self-reported physical health score, and use of antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering medications. OR (95% CI)30 min
HbA1c
SB → MVPA: 1.06 (0.89, 1.25)
Blood pressure
SB → MVPA: 1.27 (1.04, 1.55)
LDL
SB → MVPA: 0.94 (0.79, 1.12)
HDL
SB → MVPA: 0.95 (0.81, 1.13)
Triglycerides
SB → MVPA: 0.91 (0.76, 1.09)
60 min
HbA1c
SB → LPA: 1.18 (1.04, 1.35)
Blood pressure
SB → LPA: 1.03 (0.91, 1.18)
LDL
SB → LPA: 1.04 (0.89, 1.22)
HDL
SB → LPA: 1.17 (1.04, 1.32)
Triglycerides
SB → LPA: 1.20 (1.05, 1.36)
Whitaker et al. [38] Adults (n = 3211) from the CARDIA study, USA; cross-sectional SB including [i] TV viewing, [ii] using the computer for non-work activities or playing video games, [iii] doing non-computer office work or paperwork, [iv] listening to music, reading a book or magazine, or doing arts and crafts, [v] talking on the phone or texting, and [vi] sitting in a car, bus, train or other mode of transportation, MVPA – self reports; LPA, sleep – not assessed Composite cardio metabolic risk score Mekary et al. [12] / 120 min Age, sex, centre, race, education, unemployment, health insurance, smoking, alcohol, total physical activity, fast food and sugar sweetened beverage consumption, depressive symptoms and BMI. β (95% CI)
Composite cardio metabolic risk score
TV viewing ↔ computer usage: − 0.07 (− 0.11, − 0.03)
TV viewing ↔ paperwork: − 0.07 (− 0.12, − 0.02)
TV viewing ↔ reading: 0.06 (− 0.11, − 0.02)
TV viewing ↔ talking on the phone: − 0.07 (− 0.12, − 0.02)
TV viewing ↔ sitting in a car: − 0.09 (− 0.13, − 0.05)
Computer usage ↔ paperwork: − 0.00 (− 0.06, 0.06)
Computer usage ↔ reading: 0.01 (− 0.04, 0.05)
Computer usage ↔ talking on the phone: − 0.00 (− 0.06, 0.05)
Computer usage ↔ sitting in a car: − 0.02 (− 0.06, 0.02)
Paperwork ↔ reading: 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.06)
Paperwork ↔ talking on the phone: − 0.00 (− 0.06, 0.06)
Paperwork ↔ sitting in a car: − 0.02 (− 0.07, 0.04)
Reading ↔ talking on the phone: − 0.01 (− 0.07, 0.05)
Reading ↔ sitting in a car: − 0.03 (− 0.07, 0.02)
Talking on the phone ↔ sitting in a car: − 0.02 (− 0.07, 0.04)
Yates et al. [76] Adults at increased risk of type 2 diabetes (n = 508) from the Walking Away from Type 2 Diabetes Study, UK; cross-sectional SB, LPA, MVPA – waist-worn accelerometers; sleep – not assessed Fasting and 2-h post-challenge insulin and glucose, HOMA-IS and Matsuda-ISI Mekary et al. [12] / 30 min Age, sex, smoking status, beta-blocker and statin medication status, IMD score (model 1) and BMI (model 2). OR (95% CI)
Model 1
Fasting glucose
SB → LPA: 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
SB → MVPA: 1.00 (0.98, 1.01)
Fasting insulin
SB → LPA: 0.98 (0.95, 1.01)
SB → MVPA: 0.87 (0.81, 0.93)
2-h glucose
SB → LPA: 0.97 (0.95, 0.99)
SB → MVPA: 0.98 (0.95, 1.02)
2-h insulin
SB → LPA: 0.96 (0.92, 1.00)
SB → MVPA: 0.84 (0.76, 0.92)
HOMA-IS
SB → LPA: 1.02 (0.98, 1.05)
SB → MVPA: 1.15 (1.07, 1.25)
Matsuda-ISI
SB → LPA: 1.05 (1.01, 1.09)
SB → MVPA: 1.18 (1.08, 1.29)
Model 2
Fasting glucose
SB → LPA: 1.00 (0.99, 1.01)
SB → MVPA: 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
Fasting insulin
SB → LPA: 0.99 (0.96, 1.02)
SB → MVPA: 0.92 (0.86, 0.99)
2-h glucose
SB → LPA: 0.97 (0.95, 0.99)
SB → MVPA: 0.98 (0.94, 1.02)
2-h insulin
SB → LPA: 0.96 (0.91, 1.00)
SB → MVPA: 0.85 (0.77, 0.94)
HOMA-IS
SB → LPA: 1.01 (0.97, 1.04)
SB → MVPA: 1.08 (1.01, 1.16)
Matsuda-ISI
SB → LPA: 1.04 (1.00, 1.08)
SB → MVPA: 1.14 (1.04, 1.25)
  1. SB sedentary behaviour, LPA light intensity physical activity, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, MPA moderate intensity physical activity, VPA vigorous intensity physical activity, BMI body mass index, HDL high-density lipoproteins, LDL low-density lipoproteins, HOMA-S homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity, HOMA-β homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function, CVD cardiovascular disease, Mastuda-ISI matsuda-insulin sensitivity index, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio