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Table 1 Characteristics of participants in the UK Biobank sample, UK (n = 51,361), overall and stratified by quartiles of fast-food outlet proportion

From: Examining the interaction of fast-food outlet exposure and income on diet and obesity: evidence from 51,361 UK Biobank participants

  Quartiles of fast-food outlet proportion  
  Q1 (0–13%) Q2 (13–17%) Q3 (17–24%) Q4 (24–45%) All
Age, years 56.5 (8.2) 55.7 (8.2) 55.6 (8.2) 56.0 (8.2) 56.0 (8.2)
Men (no. (%)) 5552 (43.2) 5621 (43.8) 5709 (44.5) 5643 (43.9) 22,525 (43.9)
Ethnicity (no. (%))
 White 11,430 (89.0) 10,496 (81.8) 9601 (74.8) 9405 (73.2) 40,932 (79.7)
 Asian or Asian British 359 (2.8) 966 (7.5) 1322 (10.3) 1187 (9.2) 3834 (7.5)
 Black or Black British 350 (2.7) 612 (4.8) 1028 (8.0) 1369 (10.7) 3359 (6.5)
 Other 351 (2.7) 402 (3.1) 483 (3.8) 448 (3.5) 1684 (3.3)
 Don’t know or Prefer not to say 84 (0.6) 96 (0.7) 124 (1.0) 102 (0.8) 406 (0.8)
Household income, £/year (no. (%))
  <  31,000 3379 (26.3) 3859 (30.1) 4563 (35.5) 4798 (37.4) 16,599 (32.3)
 31,000 – 51,999 2396 (18.7) 2657 (20.7) 2756 (21.5) 2881 (22.4) 10,690 (20.8)
 52,000 – 100,000 3057 (23.8) 3034 (23.6) 2563 (20.0) 2415 (18.8) 11,069 (21.6)
  >  100,000 2409 (18.8) 1504 (11.7) 876 (6.8) 591 (4.6) 5380 (10.5)
 Don’t know or Prefer not to say 1606 (12.5) 1779 (13.9) 2083 (16.2) 2155 (16.8) 7623 (14.8)
Highest education (no. (%))
 Compulsory (11 y of education) or Othera 2074 (16.1) 2703 (21.1) 3675 (28.6) 4286 (33.4) 12,738 (24.8)
 Further (12–13 y of education) 1680 (13.1) 1779 (13.9) 2039 (15.9) 2224 (17.3) 7722 (15.0)
 Higher (> 13 y of education) 8956 (69.7) 8151 (63.5) 6865 (53.5) 6085 (47.4) 30,057 (58.5)
 Prefer not to say 137 (1.1) 200 (1.6) 262 (2.0) 245 (1.9) 844 (1.6)
Current or ex-smoker (no. (%)) 6304 (49.1) 6109 (47.6) 5759 (44.8) 5587 (43.5) 23,759 (46.3)
Anthropometric and Diet Outcomes
 BMI, kg/m2 26.1 (4.5) 26.6 (4.8) 27.3 (5.0) 27.6 (5.0) 26.9 (4.9)
 Body Fat, % 29.8 (8.3) 30.4 (8.4) 31.3 (8.7) 32.0 (8.7) 30.8 (8.6)
 Obese, BMI ≥ 30 (no. (%)) 2102 (16.4) 2564 (20.0) 3136 (24.4) 3401 (26.5) 11,203 (21.8)
 Frequent processed meat consumptione 3239 (25.2) 3464 (27.0) 3647 (28.4) 3885 (30.3) 14,235 (27.7)
Food Environment Exposuresb
 Fast-food outlets 35.7 (30.3) 46.5 (30.2) 40.1 (27.2) 34.5 (16.9) 39.2 (27.1)
 Other food outletsc 400.6 (422.0) 266.1 (177.0) 161.6 (114.7) 84.9 (46.5) 228.3 (265.0)
 Fast-food outlet proportion, %d 9.1 (2.9) 15.0 (1.2) 20.1 (2.1) 29.4 (3.5) 18.4 (7.9)
  1. Data are mean (standard deviation) unless otherwise stated; percentages represent column percentage | a Those reporting ‘Other’ education will include those with no and non-British qualifications | b Counts of food outlets within 1 mile Euclidean (straight line) radius buffers of home address | c Sum of counts of Supermarkets, Restaurants, Convenience stores, Cafes and Specialist stores | d Fast-food outlets expressed as a proportion of the sum of counts of Fast-food outlets, Supermarkets, Restaurants, Convenience Stores, Cafes and Specialist stores | e Frequent consumption was defined as more than once per week; processed meat includes bacon, ham, sausages, meat pies, kebabs, burgers, chicken nuggets