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Table 2 Associations of quartiles of fast-food outlet proportion with body mass index (estimated using a multivariable linear regression model, n = 51,361), obesity (estimated using a binomial logistic regression model n = 51,361), and frequent consumption of processed meat (estimated using a binomial logistic regression model, n = 51,090) in the Greater London UK Biobank sample

From: Examining the interaction of fast-food outlet exposure and income on diet and obesity: evidence from 51,361 UK Biobank participants

   Model 1a   Model 2b   Model 3c   Model 4d  
  Quartilee β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Difference in BMI (kg/m2) Q1 (0.0–12.7%) ref   ref   ref   ref  
  Q2 (12.7–16.9%) 0.53** 0.41, 0.65 0.48** 0.36, 0.59 0.37** 0.25, 0.49 0.35** 0.23, 0.47
  Q3 (16.9–23.7%) 1.21** 1.09, 1.33 1.04** 0.93, 1.16 0.83** 0.70, 0.95 0.80** 0.67, 0.93
  Q4 (23.7–44.6%) 1.54** 1.42, 1.66 1.30** 1.18; 1.42 1.03** 0.89; 1.17 0.99** 0.85, 1.14
   Model 1a   Model 2b   Model 3c   Model 4d  
   OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Odds of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) Q1 (0.0–12.7%) ref   ref   ref   ref  
  Q2 (12.7–16.9%) 1.28** 1.20, 1.36 1.26** 1.18, 1.34 1.20** 1.12, 1.28 1.19** 1.11, 1.27
  Q3 (16.9–23.7%) 1.65** 1.55, 1.76 1.57** 1.48, 1.67 1.43** 1.34, 1.53 1.42** 1.32, 1.52
  Q4 (23.7–44.6%) 1.84** 1.73, 1.96 1.70** 1.60, 1.81 1.53** 1.43, 1.65 1.51** 1.40, 1.64
   Model 1a   Model 2f   Model 3c   Model 4d  
   OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Odds of frequent consumption of processed meatg (> once per week) Q1 (0.0–12.7%) ref   ref   ref   ref  
Q2 (12.7–16.9%) 1.10* 1.04, 1.16 1.15** 1.08, 1.22 1.10* 1.04, 1.17 1.10* 1.03, 1.16
Q3 (16.9–23.7%) 1.18** 1.12, 1.25 1.29** 1.22, 1.36 1.19** 1.12, 1.27 1.18** 1.11, 1.26
Q4 (23.7–44.6%) 1.29** 1.22, 1.37 1.45** 1.36, 1.53 1.30** 1.22, 1.39 1.28** 1.19, 1.38
  1. *p < 0.05; ** p < 0.001 | a Model 1 is an unadjusted model | b Model 2 adjusts for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status | c Model 3 additionally adjusts for household income, number in household, highest educational attainment and UK Biobank assessment centre attended | d Model 4 additionally adjusts for sum of counts of Supermarkets, Restaurants, Convenience stores, Cafes and Specialist Stores within 1 mile Euclidean (straight line) radius buffers of home address | e Q1 = quartile with lowest fast-food outlet proportion in home neighbourhood (min-max %) – Q4 = quartile with greatest fast-food outlet proportion in home neighbourhood (min-max %) | f Model 2 adjusts for age, sex, ethnicity | g Includes bacon, ham, sausages, meat pies, kebabs, burgers, chicken nuggets