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Table 3 Associations of household income with body mass index (estimated using a multivariable linear regression model, n = 51,361), obesity (estimated using a binomial logistic regression model, n = 51,361), and frequent consumption of processed meat (estimated using a binomial logistic regression model, n = 51,090) in the Greater London UK Biobank sample

From: Examining the interaction of fast-food outlet exposure and income on diet and obesity: evidence from 51,361 UK Biobank participants

  Household Income (£/year) Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d
β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI β 95% CI
Difference in BMI (kg/m2) >  100,000 ref   ref   ref   ref  
  52,000–100,000 0.71** 0.55, 0.87 0.60** 0.45, 0.76 0.44** 0.29, 0.60 0.33** 0.17, 0.48
  31,000–51,999 1.17** 1.01, 1.33 0.95** 0.80, 1.11 0.67** 0.51, 0.83 0.51** 0.35, 0.67
  <  31,000 1.73** 1.58, 1.88 1.36** 1.21, 1.51 0.85** 0.69, 1.01 0.68** 0.52, 0.84
   Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Odds of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) >  100,000 ref   ref   ref   ref  
  52,000–100,000 1.42** 1.29, 1.56 1.37** 1.24, 1.50 1.29** 1.17, 1.41 1.22** 1.11, 1.34
  31,000–51,999 1.70** 1.55, 1.86 1.57** 1.43, 1.72 1.41** 1.28, 1.54 1.32** 1.20, 1.45
  <  31,000 2.29** 2.10, 2.49 2.02** 1.84, 2.20 1.66** 1.51, 1.82 1.54** 1.41, 1.69
   Model 1a Model 2e Model 3c Model 4d
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Odds of frequent consumption of processed meatf (> once per week) >  100,000 ref   ref   ref   ref  
52,000–100,000 1.08* 1.00, 1.16 1.17** 1.09, 1.27 1.13* 1.05, 1.22 1.10* 1.02, 1.19
31,000–51,999 1.01 0.94, 1.09 1.24** 1.15, 1.34 1.19** 1.10, 1.29 1.14* 1.06, 1.24
<  31,000 1.01 0.94, 1.08 1.38** 1.28, 1.49 1.30** 1.20, 1.41 1.25** 1.15, 1.35
  1. Measure of interaction (fast-food exposure*household income with difference in BMI) on a multiplicative scale based on an F-test, P = 0.230 | *p < 0.05; ** p < 0.001 | a Model 1 adjusts for number in household | b Model 2 additionally adjusts for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status | c Model 3 additionally adjusts for highest educational attainment and UK Biobank assessment centre attended | d Model 4 additionally adjusts for fast-food outlet proportion and the sum of counts of Supermarkets, Restaurants, Convenience stores, Cafes and Specialist Stores within 1 mile Euclidean (straight line) radius buffers of home address | e Model 2 adjusts for age, sex, ethnicity | f Includes bacon, ham, sausages, meat pies, kebabs, burgers, chicken nuggets