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Table 4 Effect of RP intervention on maternal pressure, restriction, and structure in feeding

From: INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention and infant feeding practices: randomized clinical trial

  RP
(n = 140)
Control
(n = 139)
p-valuea Odds ratio (CI) or Cohen’s D
Pressuring feeding
 Child is encouraged to finish a bottle if baby stops drinking before the milk is all gone (≥sometimes, denominator = current bottle users)
  8 weeks 38/114 (33.3%) 56/108 (51.4%) 0.007 0.5 (0.3–0.8)
  20 weeks 41/117 (35.0%) 53/105 (50.5%) 0.02 0.5 (0.3–0.9)
  32 weeks 36/109 (33.0%) 65/106 (61.3%) < 0.0001 0.3 (0.2–0.5)
 Try to get my child to finish breastmilk or formula (denominator = all available)
 16 weeks
  Never 48/132 (36.4%) 39/131 (29.8%) 0.06 0.7 (0.4–1.0)
  Rarely 43/132 (32.6%) 41/131 (31.3%)
  Half of the time 23/132 (17.4%) 21/131 (16.0%)
  Most of the time 16/132 (12.1%) 22/131 (16.8%)
  Always 2/132 (1.5%) 8/131 (6.1%)
 28 weeks
  Never 46/128 (35.9%) 22/125 (17.6%) < 0.0001 0.4 (0.2–0.6)
  Rarely 54/128 (42.2%) 47/125 (37.6%)
  Half of the time 11/128 (8.6%) 26/125 (20.8%)
  Most of the time 14/128 (10.9%) 18/125 (14.4%)
  Always 3/128 (2.3%) 12/125 (9.6%)
Try to get my child to finish his/her food (denominator = all available)
 28 weeks
  Never 42/128 (32.8%) 16/119 (13.5%) 0.0001 0.4 (0.3–0.6)
  Rarely 43/128 (33.6%) 43/119 (36.1%)
  Half of the time 23/128 (18.0%) 24/119 (20.2%)
  Most of the time 17/128 (13.3%) 27/119 (22.7%)
  Always 3/128 (2.3%) 9/119 (7.6%)
Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire (IFSQ) – 28 weeks
 Pressure to finish 1.85 (0.61), n = 130 2.24 (0.74), n = 128 < 0.0001 0.58
 Pressure to soothe 1.71 (0.62), n = 130 2.23 (0.82), n = 128 < 0.0001 0.72
 Pressure with cereal 1.39 (0.65), n = 130 1.73 (0.90), n = 128 0.0003 0.43
 Restrictive/amount 2.84 (1.05), n = 130 2.93 (1.03), n = 128 0.48 0.09
 Restrictive/diet quality 3.93 (0.69), n = 130 3.87 (0.77), n = 128 0.51 0.08
 Responsive/satiety 4.62 (0.41), n = 130 4.56 (0.48), n = 127 0.29 0.13
Structure and Control in Parenting Feeding (SCPF) – 52 weeks
 Limit exposure 4.13 (0.40), n = 120 4.01 (0.47), n = 123 0.03 0.27
 Consistent feeding routines 4.18 (0.48), n = 120 4.00 (0.49), n = 123 0.006 0.37
 Pressure to eat 1.78 (0.62), n = 120 1.99 (0.68), n = 123 0.01 0.32
 Restriction 2.12 (0.88), n = 120 2.03 (0.85), n = 123 0.42 0.10
  1. ap for study group difference, ANOVA or logistic regression adjusted for stratification variables