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Table 1 Characteristic of included studies

From: Exercise training modalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Author Country Type of patients Study period (months) Interventions Sample Mean age (years) Exercise prescription
N/F/M
Kwon 2010 Korea NA 3 unsupervised RE 13/−/− 55.7 ± 6.2 40–50% 1RM; each session 40 min
no exercise 15/−/− 57.0 ± 8.0 NA
Okada 2010 Japan NA 3 combined 21/11/10 61.9 ± 8.6 3–5 times weekly; each session 60 min
no exercise 17/6/11 64.5 ± 5.9 NA
Aylin 2009 Turkey NA 2 combined 18/3/15 51.39 ± 2.02 RT: 50% 1RM; each session 30 min; AT: walking with moderate intensity
no exercise 18/6/12 56.06 ± 1.48 NA
Kenneth 2013 Switzerland Sedentary 3 supervised AE 20/−/− 68.5 ± 0.9 moderate to vigorous intensity; 3 times weekly; each session 60 min.
anaerobic 20/−/− 70 ± 0.8 minimal aerobic component; nonstrenuous strength training
Larose 2011 Canada Sedentary 6 combined 64/24/40 53.5 ± 7.3 NA
supervised AE 60/21/39 53.9 ± 6.6 60% VO2peak; 75% heart rate; 3 times weekly
supervised RE 64/24/40 54.7 ± 7.5 2–3 times weekly; each exercise 2–3 sets
no exercise 63/22/41 54.8 ± 7.2 full aerobic training programme plus the full resistance training
Stolinskia 2008 UK NA 6 supervised AE 8/4/4 59 ± 3 60–85%VO2peak; 4 times weekly; supervised by trainer
unsupervised AE 9/4/5 55 ± 3 60–85%VO2peak; 4 times weekly Only contact trainers initially
Arslan 2014 Turkey NA 3 supervised AE 31/14/17 53.5 ± 6.5 75% maximum heart rate; each session 45 min
no exercise 33/19/14 54.0 ± 9.4 NA
Yavari 2010 Iran NA 4 unsupervised AE 30/14/16 49.76 ± 6.56 60–85%VO2peak; 50% maximum heart rate;each session 4 min
no exercise 30/18/12 49.86 ± 6.39 NA
Shenoy 2010 India NA 2 unsupervised AE 20/5/15 53.15 ± 4.4 moderate intensity; 50–70% maximum heart rate; 150 min weekly
no exercise 20/6/14 51 ± 5.4 NA
KU 2010 Korea NA 3 supervised RE 13/13/0 55.7 ± 6.2 40–45% maximum capacity; 5 times weekly;
supervised AE 15/15/0 55.7 ± 6.2 Moderate intensity; 5 times weekly;
no exercise 16/16/0 57.8 ± 8.1 NA
Belli 2011 Brazil Sedentary 3 supervised AE 9/9/0 55.9 ± 2.2 Time of walking increase from 20 min to 50 min
no exercise 10/10/0 53.4 ± 2.3 NA
Dunstan 1998 Australia Sedentary 2 supervised RE 11/3/8 50.3 ± 2.0 50–55% 1RM; each session 60 min;
no exercise 10/5/5 51.1 ± 2.2 NA
Reid 2010 Canada NA 6 combined 57/19/38 53.3 ± 7.2 full aerobic program plus the full resistance program
supervised RE 58/20/38 54.7 ± 7.6 8 different exercises on weight machines each session; 3 times weekly
supervised AE 51/18/33 53.8 ± 6.4 60–75% maximum heart rate; 3 times weekly
no exercise 52/19/33 55.2 ± 6.9 NA
Sigal 2007 Canada NA 6 combined 64/24/40 53.5 ± 7.3 full aerobic program plus the full resistance program
supervised RE 60/21/30 53.9 ± 6.6 7 different exercises on weight machines each session
supervised AE 64/24/40 54.7 ± 7.5 60–75% maximum heart rate; 3 times weekly
no exercise 63/22/41 54.8 ± 7.2 NA
Choi 2012 Korea Sedentary 3 no exercise 37/−/− 55.0 ± 6.0 NA
unsupervised AE 38/−/− 53.8 ± 7.2 Moderate intensity; each session 60 min; 5 times weekly
Arora 2007 India NA 2 no exercise 10/4/6 58.4 ± 1.8 NA
supervised RE 10/6/4 49.6 ± 5.2 60% 1RM; 3 sets of 10 repetitions of 7 exercise each session;
unsupervised AE 10/4/6 52.2 ± 9.3 2 times weekly; each session 30 min
Oliveira 2012 Brazi NA 3 flexibility training 12/8/4 53.42 ± 9.82 perform stretching exercises
supervised AE 11/6/5 52.09 ± 8.71 Cycling time increase from 20 min to 50 min
supervised RE 10/6/4 54.10 ± 8.94 50% 1RM; 4 sets of 8 to 12 repetitions of 7 exercise
combined 10/6/4 57.90 ± 9.82 same intensity and half the volume of that in the AT and ST groups
Jennings 2009 Canada Sedentary 6 combined 19/6/13 54.48 ± 7.68 3 times weekly
supervised RE 18/7/11 52.84 ± 7.54 3 times weekly
supervised AE 13/7/6 55.35 ± 7.49 3 times weekly
no exercise 22/11/11 56.33 ± 6.91 NA
Cauza 2005 Australia NA 4 unsupervised RE 22/11/11 56.4 ± 1.1 3 sets per muscle group per week; 3 times weekly
unsupervised AE 17/8/9 57.9 ± 1.4 60% VO2max; 3 times weekly
Franciele 2013 USA NA 7 days unsupervised AE 7/2/5 56 ± 2 70% peak heart rate; each session 40 min
combined 7/2/5 20 min AT at 70% peak heart rate and 4 RT 3 sets of 12 repetitions at 65% 1RM
Cheung 2009 Australia Sedentary 4 unsupervised RE 20/13/7 59 ± 8.7 5 times weekly; each session 30 min
no exercise 17/12/5 62 ± 6.7 NA
Whye 2011 Singapore Sedentary 2 unsupervised RE 30/19/11 57 ± 7 65% maximum heart rate; 9 resistive exercises 3 sets of 10 repetitions
unsupervised AE 30/22/8 59 ± 7 50 min AT exercise; 65% maximum heart rate
Morton 2012 UK NA 1.65 supervised AE 27/6/21 61 ± 10 Walking in duration from 25 to 55 min.
no exercise 27/6/21 63 ± 9 NA
Dede 2014 Turkey Sedentary 3 supervised AE 30/15/15 52.5 ± 7.5 60–75% maximum heart rate
no exercise 30/16/14 55.5 ± 8.4 NA
BACCHI 2012 Italy NA 4 supervised AE 20/6/14 57.2 ± 1.6 60–65% maximum heart rate
supervised RE 20/6/14 55.6 ± 1.7 30–50%1 RM; three series of 10 repetitions
Ng 2010 Singapore Sedentary 2 supervised AE 30/11/19 57 ± 7 NA
supervised RE 30/8/22 59 ± 7 65% 1RM;
Sparks 2013 Netherlands Sedentary 9 flexibility training 10/8/2 60.8 ± 8.0 65% maximum heart rate
supervised AE 12/6/6 54.2 ± 6.0 50–80% VO2 peak;
supervised RE 18/9/9 60.4 ± 7.3 Each session 45–50 min; each set consisted of 10 to 12 repetitions
combined 12/6/6 54.1 ± 6.2 NA
Gavin 2010 Canada Sedentary 6 no exercise 63/22/41 54.8 ± 7.2 NA
supervised AE 60/21/39 53.9 ± 6.6 65% maximum heart rate; 50% of VO2peak
supervised RE 64/24/40 54.7 ± 7.5 2 to 3 times weekly; maximum of 8 repetitions
combined 64/24/40 53.5 ± 7.3 full Aerobic program plus the full Resistance program
Madden 2009 Canada NA 3 supervised AE 18/−/− 71.7 ± 1.1 Each session 60 min; 60–75% maximum heart rate
An-AE 18/−/− 71.1 ± 0.9 3 times weekly; no aerobic component and consisted of nonaerobic core and dumbbells exercises
Madden 2011 Canada Sedentary 3 supervised AE 21/15/25 71.9 ± 1.1 3 times weekly; each session 60 min
An-AE 71.3 ± 0.9 3 times weekly; no aerobic component and consisted of nonaerobic core and dumbbells exercises
William 2011 New Zealand NA 4 supervised RE 9/6/3 48 ± 6 two to three sets of eight major exercises
supervised AE 9/7/2 51 ± 4 3 times weekly; each session 40–60 min;
Kadoglou 2014 Greece Sedentary 6 supervised AE 30/17/13 59.33 ± 4.76 50–75%, VO2 peak; each session 60 min
no exercise 30/18/12 63.82 ± 7.03 NA
ALAM 2004 UK NA 6 supervised AE 9/5/4 59.5 ± 2.5 60–85%, VO2 peak; supervised by trainer
unsupervised AE 9/4/5 55.3 ± 23.2 NA
Tessier 2000 Canada NA 3 supervised AE 19/7/12 69.3 ± 4.2 60–79% maximum heart rate
no exercise 20/9/11 69.5 ± 5.1 NA
Church 2011 American Sedentary 3 no exercise 41/28/13 58.6 ± 8.2 NA
supervised RE 73/43/30 56.9 ± 8.7 3 times per week; each set consisted of 10 to 12 repetitions
supervised AE 72/45/27 53.7 ± 9.1 50–80% maximum heart rate; 150 min per week
Combined 76/49/27 55.4 ± 8.3 NA
Kwon 2010b Korea NA 6 unsupervised AE 13/13/0 55.5 ± 7.5 5 times per week;
no exercise 14/14/0 57.5 ± 8.6 NA
Winnick 2008 USA NA 4 unsupervised AE 15 (the white) 49.5 ± 2.9 10 repetition performed on each of eight machines
unsupervised RE 18 (the white) 50.3 ± 3.5 3 times weekly; each session 30-40mijn
unsupervised AE 24 (African) 50.7 ± 2.0 NA
unsupervised RT 12 (African) 46.2 ± 2.0 NA
  1. NOTE: AE: aerobic exercise; RE: resistance exercise; NA: not available; RM: repetition maximum