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Table 3 Summary of themes identified in research against elements of conceptual model

From: Effective advocacy strategies for influencing government nutrition policy: a conceptual model

  Key themes from studies
Components of model Systematic literature RV Network Analysis In-depth interviews
Contextual factors
 Neoliberal environment ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘The rise of neoliberal ideology’   ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘Power and influence of food industry’ ‘Appeal to beliefs’ ‘Abdication of responsibility’ ‘Evidence is only one factor’
 Pressurised, risk-averse environment ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘Pressure from industry’   ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘Evidence is only one factor’ ‘Competing for attention of decision-makers’ ‘Lack of public will’ ‘Complex, multifaceted problem’
 System of governance ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘Government silos’   ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘Be alert for policy window’ ‘Priority of other portfolios’ ‘Evidence is only one factor’ ‘Lack of public will’
 Democratisation of knowledge    ‘Complex, multifaceted problem’ ‘Evidence is only one factor’ ‘Competing for attention of decision-makers’ ‘Appeal to beliefs’
Enablers
 Invest in relationships/gather intelligence ‘Build relationships with key stakeholders’ ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘Be visible’ ‘Invest in diverse & strategic relationships’ ‘Invest in relationships’ ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘Be alert for policy window’ ‘Credibility’ ‘Trust’
 Develop clear, unified solution ‘Develop a well thought-through solution’   ‘Provide an attractive solution’ ‘Represent many voices’
 Engage or develop skills of a policy entrepreneur ‘Engage a policy entrepreneur or develop skills if advocates’ ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘Have more than one policy broker/entrepreneur’ ‘Credibility’ ‘Invest in relationships’ ‘Be alert for policy window’ ‘Play the long game’ ‘Issue/name top of mind’
 Engage policy champion ‘Be visible’ ‘Understand the policymaking process’ ‘Policy brokers/entrepreneur may not be as powerful as previously thought’ ‘Power and status’ ‘Trust’ ‘Respect’ ‘Credibility’ ‘Appeal to beliefs’
 Reframe issues appealing to values and beliefs ‘Use emotions and values’   ‘Provide an attractive solution’ ‘Appeal to beliefs’
 Amplify frame ‘Be visible’   ‘Invest in relationships’ ‘Able to create noise’ ‘Build/mobilise coalitions’
 Increase public will ‘Increase public will’ ‘Be visible’   ‘Invest in relationships’ ‘Able to create noise’ ‘Build/mobilise coalitions’