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Table 1 Characteristics of 39,771 participants according to gender (NutriNet-Santé study, 2014)

From: Impulsivity and consideration of future consequences as moderators of the association between emotional eating and body weight status

  All (n = 39,771) Women (n = 29,797) Men (n = 9974) P1
Age (years)2 49.9 ± 13.7 48.5 ± 13.5 54.1 ± 13.6 <.0001
Education level (%)     <.0001
 Primary 2.8 2.7 3.3  
 Secondary 32.8 32.4 34.3  
 Some college 30.9 33.2 24.0  
 University 33.2 31.5 38.2  
 Missing data 0.2 0.2 0.2  
Occupational status (%)     <.0001
 Unemployed 10.0 11.9 4.5  
 Student 3.5 4.1 1.5  
 Self-employed, farmer 1.7 1.6 2.0  
 Employee, manual worker 16.0 18.5 8.5  
 Intermediate professions 16.5 18.1 11.7  
 Managerial staff, intellectual profession 22.1 20.6 26.7  
 Retired 30.1 25.1 45.1  
Monthly household income (%)3     <.0001
  < 1200€ 13.3 14.6 9.3  
 1200-1799€ 23.1 23.7 21.4  
 1800-2299€ 15.3 15.4 14.7  
 2300-2699€ 9.5 8.7 11.8  
 2700-3699€ 16.5 15.3 20.0  
  ≥ 3700€ 11.1 9.6 15.6  
 Unwilling to answer 10.3 11.4 6.8  
 Missing data 1.0 1.2 0.4  
Smoking status (%)     <.0001
 Never smokers 48.7 51.6 40.0  
 Smokers 51.3 48.4 60.0  
Physical activity (%)     <.0001
 Low 21.6 22.3 19.4  
 Moderate 40.5 42.1 35.6  
 High 34.4 31.9 42.0  
 Missing data 3.5 3.7 3.0  
History of dieting (%)     <.0001
 Never dieters 60.8 57.7 70.3  
 Dieters 39.2 42.3 29.7  
Baseline BMI (kg/m2)2 24.0 ± 4.5 23.6 ± 4.6 25.1 ± 3.8 <.0001
BMI change/year (kg.m−2.y−1)2,4 0.04 ± 0.48 0.05 ± 0.51 0.02 ± 0.36 <.0001
Period of follow-up (years)4,5 5.27 (4.00–6.93) 5.19 (3.97–6.91) 5.96 (4.00–6.94) <.0001
Baseline Weight status (%)     <.0001
 Underweight (<  18.5 kg/m2) 4.7 5.9 1.1  
 Normal (≥ 18.5 and < 25 kg/m2) 63.4 66.4 54.1  
 Overweight (≥ 25 and < 30 kg/m2) 22.9 18.6 35.5  
 Obese (≥ 30 kg/m2) 8.9 8.8 9.3  
 Missing data 0.1 0.1 0.0  
CFC (CFC-12) (range: 12–60)2 40.4 ± 7.0 40.2 ± 7.0 40.8 ± 6.9 <.0001
Impulsivity (BIS-11) (range: 30–120)2 58.6 ± 8.0 58.9 ± 7.9 57.4 ± 8.0 <.0001
Emotional eating score (range: 1–4)5 2.00 (1.33–2.83) 2.17 (1.67–2.83) 1.67 (1.00–2.17) <.0001
  1. CFC-12 Consideration of Future Consequences scale, high CFC scores indicate a high level of future orientation
  2. BIS-11 Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (11th version), high BIS-11 scores indicate a high level of impulsivity
  3. 1p-value based on t tests for continuous variables or chi-square tests for categorical variables (corrected for multiple testing with a Holm-Bonferroni procedure)
  4. 2Mean ± SD
  5. 3Members of a household received different weights according to the OECD-modified equivalence scale: 1 for the first adult in the household, 0.5 for other persons aged 14 or older and 0.3 for children under 14 [58]. Total household income is then divided by the sum of the weights s to yield a representative income
  6. 4Based on the 38,665 participants with at least two measures of BMI
  7. 5Median (Interquartile range), adjusted p-value based on Wilcoxon two-sample test