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Table 2 Leisure-time Physical Activity and Affect: Structural Equation Model Testing Autonomous and Controlled Motivation as Moderators

From: Domain-specific physical activity and affective wellbeing among adolescents: an observational study of the moderating roles of autonomous and controlled motivation

  Unadjusted model Adjusted model
β SE p R 2 β SE p R 2
Self-report model
Positive Affect
  Leisure-time PA −.02 .07 .76   −.09 .09 .30  
  Autonomous motivation towards leisure-time PA .51 .05 <.001   .55 .07 <.001  
  Controlled motivation towards leisure-time PA −.07 .04 .06   −.07 .03 .03  
  Leisure-time PA × Autonomous Motivation .05 .06 .45   .09 .07 .20  
  Leisure-time PA × Controlled Motivation .09 .03 .01   .03 .02 .07  
  Age      .02 .01 .07  
  Sex      .02 .01 .07  
  SES      .02 .01 .07  
  BMI      .04 .02 .07  
     .25***     .26***
Negative Affect
  Leisure-time PA −.14 .06 .02   −.10 .05 .07  
  Autonomous motivation towards leisure-time PA −.12 .05 .019   −.11 .05 .03  
  Controlled motivation towards leisure-time PA .38 .05 <.001   .35 .06 <.001  
  Leisure-time PA × Autonomous Motivation .04 .04 .24   .03 .04 .41  
  Leisure-time PA × Controlled Motivation −.14 .06 .01   −.03 .01 .02  
  Age      −.03 .01 .02  
  Sex      −.02 .01 .02  
  SES      −.03 .01 .02  
  BMI      −.05 .02 .02  
     .19***     .15***
Objective model
Positive Affect
  Leisure-time PA .02 .03 .43   −.02 .04 .71  
  Autonomous motivation towards leisure-time PA .53 .04 <.001   .52 .03 <.001  
  Controlled motivation towards leisure-time PA −.06 .08 .47   −.07 .04 .12  
  Leisure-time PA × Autonomous Motivation −.02 .03 .62   −.01 .01 .29  
  Leisure-time PA × Controlled Motivation .02 .07 .83   .00 .00 .10  
  Age      .03 .02 .10  
  Sex      .03 .02 .10  
  SES      .04 .03 .10  
  BMI      .06 .04 .10  
     .30***     .26***
Negative Affect
  Leisure-time PA −.07 .03 .03   −.04 .03 .13  
  Autonomous motivation towards leisure-time PA −.14 .04 <.001   −.12 .05 .01  
  Controlled motivation towards leisure-time PA .30 .09 <.01   .36 .06 <.001  
  Leisure-time PA × Autonomous Motivation −.02 .03 .64   −.01 .02 .57  
  Leisure-time PA × Controlled Motivation .06 .06 .36   −.00 .00 <.001  
  Age      −.05 .01 <.001  
  Sex      −.04 .01 <.001  
  SES      −.05 .02 <.001  
  BMI      −.10 .03 <.001  
     .14***     .15***
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, PA physical activity, SES socioeconomic status. Adjusted model includes age, sex, socioeconomic status, and body mass index as covariates
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001