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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of older Japanese adults by driving status (n = 49,511)

From: Neighborhood food environment and mortality among older Japanese adults: results from the JAGES cohort study

  Total Driving status
  Non-car users Car users
  n = 49,511 n = 19,835 n = 29,676
  N % N % N %
Age (in years)
 65–69 15,785 31.9 5068 25.6 10,717 36.1
 70–74 14,512 29.3 5983 30.2 8529 28.7
 75–79 10,813 21.8 4877 24.6 5936 20.0
 ≥ 80 8401 17.0 3907 19.7 4494 15.1
Sex
 Male 23,092 46.6 8341 42.1 14,751 49.7
 Female 26,419 53.4 11,494 57.9 14,925 50.3
Food store availability
Subjective (perceived number of food stores within 1-km of residence)
 Highest 7898 16.0 3359 16.9 4539 15.3
 Middle–high 30,013 60.6 12,102 61.0 17,911 60.4
 Middle–low 8935 18.0 3565 18.0 5370 18.1
 Lowest 2665 5.4 809 4.1 1856 6.3
Objective (mean number of food stores within 500-m radius of residence)
 Quartile 4 (27) 12,375 25.0 8696 43.8 3679 12.4
 Quartile 3 (11) 12,010 24.3 5535 27.9 6475 21.8
 Quartile 2 (4) 12,685 25.6 3249 16.4 9436 31.8
 Quartile 1 (0.8) 12,441 25.1 2355 11.9 10,086 34.0
Objective (mean number of food stores within 1-km radius of residence)
 Quartile 4 (91) 12,369 25.0 9624 48.5 2745 9.2
 Quartile 3 (36) 12,370 25.0 5297 26.7 7073 23.8
 Quartile 2 (16) 12,378 25.0 2617 13.2 9761 32.9
 Quartile 1 (4) 12,394 25.0 2297 11.6 10,097 34.0
Sociodemographic status
Education (in years)
 Low (≤ 9) 22,736 45.9 8311 41.9 14,425 48.6
 Middle (10–12) 16,250 32.8 6477 32.7 9773 32.9
 High (≥ 13) 8147 16.5 3794 19.1 4353 14.7
 Other/missing 2378 4.8 1253 6.3 1125 3.8
Annual income (in millions of yen)
 Low (<  2.00) 20,101 40.6 7898 39.8 12,203 41.1
 Middle (2.00–3.99) 15,636 31.6 5856 29.5 9780 33.0
 High (≥ 4.00) 4496 9.1 1759 8.9 2737 9.2
 Missing 9278 18.7 4322 21.8 4956 16.7
Living situation
 Lives with others 41,237 83.3 15,006 75.7 26,231 88.4
 Lives alone 6810 13.8 4070 20.5 2740 9.2
 Missing 1464 3.0 759 3.8 705 2.4
Marital status
 Married 34,309 69.3 12,157 61.3 22,152 74.6
 Widowed 10,294 20.8 4862 24.5 5432 18.3
 Divorced 1694 3.4 1031 5.2 663 2.2
 Never married 963 1.9 677 3.4 286 1.0
 Other/missing 2251 4.5 1108 5.6 1143 3.9
Employment status
 Working 10,208 20.6 3501 17.7 6707 22.6
 Retired 27,388 55.3 11,116 56.0 16,272 54.8
 Never worked 5469 11.0 2378 12.0 3091 10.4
 Missing 6446 13.0 2840 14.3 3606 12.2
Environmental status
Driving status
 Car user 29,676 59.9 0 0 29,676 100
Public transportation
 Train user 9470 19.1 1650 8.3 7820 26.4
 Bus user 6605 13.3 1908 9.6 4697 15.8
Prefecture of residence
 Hokkaido 4253 8.6 792 4.0 3461 11.7
 Aomori 3057 6.2 727 3.7 2330 7.9
 Yamanashi 3033 6.1 426 2.1 2607 8.8
 Aichi 36,041 72.8 17,059 86.0 18,982 64.0
 Nagasaki 3127 6.3 831 4.2 2296 7.7
Walking and going out
 Walking time
 ≥ 30 min/day 31,072 62.8 12,290 62.0 18,782 63.3
 <  30 min/day 15,345 31.0 6026 30.4 9319 31.4
 Missing 3094 6.2 1519 7.7 1575 5.3
Frequency of going out
 ≥ 2 times/week 39,544 79.9 14,819 74.7 24,725 83.3
 ≤ 1 time/week 7039 14.2 2477 12.5 4562 15.4
 Missing 2928 5.9 2539 12.8 389 1.3
Nutritional status
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight (<  18.5) 3354 6.8 1582 8.0 1772 6.0
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 32,836 66.3 13,065 65.9 19,771 66.6
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 9222 18.6 3319 16.7 5903 19.9
 Obese (≥ 30.0) 1134 2.3 440 2.2 694 2.3
 Missing 2965 6.0 1429 7.2 1536 5.2
Frequency of vegetable/fruit intake
 ≥ 1 time/day 37,209 75.2 13,861 69.9 23,348 78.7
 <  1 time/day 9451 19.1 3555 17.9 5896 19.9
 Missing 2851 5.8 2419 12.2 432 1.5
Frequency of meat/fish intake
 ≥ 1 time/day 19,282 38.9 7284 36.7 11,998 40.4
 <  1 time/day 27,094 54.7 9980 50.3 17,114 57.7
 Missing 3135 6.3 2571 13 564 1.9
Health status
Undergoing medical treatment
 Cancer (yes) 2134 4.3 903 4.6 1231 4.1
 Heart disease (yes) 5983 12.1 2390 12.0 3593 12.1
 Stroke (yes) 669 1.4 251 1.3 418 1.4
 Diabetes mellitus (yes) 6247 12.6 2448 12.3 3799 12.8
 Respiratory disease (yes) 1795 3.6 673 3.4 1122 3.8
 Other (yes) 34,210 69.1 13,878 70.0 20,332 68.5
Depressive symptoms
 Non-depressed (GDS < 5) 29,877 60.3 11,264 56.8 18,613 62.7
 Depressed (GDS ≥ 5) 11,365 23.0 4656 23.5 6709 22.6
 Missing 8269 16.7 3915 19.7 4354 14.7
  1. GDS = Geriatric Depression Scale