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Table 3 Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the association of mortality with subjective and objective availability of food stores among older Japanese adults (n = 49,511)

From: Neighborhood food environment and mortality among older Japanese adults: results from the JAGES cohort study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Food store availability
Subjective availability
 Highest ref ref ref ref ref
 Middle–high 1.12 (0.99–1.27) 1.11 (0.98–1.26) 1.12 (0.99–1.28) 1.09 (0.95–1.23) 1.09 (0.95–1.23)
 Middle–low 1.21 (1.04–1.41)* 1.18 (1.01–1.37)* 1.19 (1.02–1.39)* 1.11 (0.95–1.29) 1.05 (0.90–1.23)
 Lowest 1.28 (1.04–1.58)* 1.25 (1.01–1.54)* 1.24 (1.01–1.53)* 1.13 (0.91–1.39) 1.05 (0.85–1.30)
p for trend <0.01 0.02 0.01 0.19 0.74
 Objective availability within a 500-meter radius of residence
 Quartile 4 (highest) ref ref ref ref ref
 Quartile 3 0.99 (0.87–1.14) 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.95 (0.83–1.10)
 Quartile 2 1.05 (0.93–1.20) 1.04 (0.91–1.18) 1.04 (0.91–1.19) 1.01 (0.88–1.15) 1.01 (0.89–1.16)
 Quartile 1 (lowest) 1.10 (0.97–1.25) 1.07 (0.94–1.22) 1.05 (0.92–1.21) 1.00 (0.87–1.15) 1.01 (0.88–1.16)
p for trend 0.08 0.18 0.31 0.75 0.58
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, ref reference group
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for age and sex
  3. Model 2: Model 1 + adjusted for sociodemographic status (education, annual income, living situation, marital status, and employment status)
  4. Model 3: Model 2 + adjusted for environmental status (driving status, public transportation [train and bus], and prefecture of residence)
  5. Model 4: Model 3 + adjusted for walking and going out (walking time and frequency of going out)
  6. Model 5: Model 4 + adjusted for nutritional status (body mass index, frequency of fruit/vegetable and meat/fish intake) and health status (medical treatment for cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, or other, and depressive symptoms)
  7. *p < 0.05