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Table 4 Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the association of mortality with subjective and objective availability of food stores by driving status among older Japanese adults

From: Neighborhood food environment and mortality among older Japanese adults: results from the JAGES cohort study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Driving status
Non-car users (n = 19,835)
Subjective availability
 Highest ref ref ref ref ref
 Middle–high 1.46 (1.15–1.86)** 1.44 (1.13–1.83)** 1.41 (1.11–1.80)** 1.36 (1.06–1.73)* 1.38 (1.08–1.76)*
 Middle–low 1.64 (1.24–2.17)*** 1.59 (1.20–2.10)** 1.55 (1.17–2.05)** 1.43 (1.08–1.89)* 1.37 (1.03–1.82)*
 Lowest 1.61 (1.08–2.41)* 1.56 (1.04–2.33)* 1.44 (0.96–2.16) 1.28 (0.85–1.92) 1.21 (0.80–1.82)
p for trend < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.22
Objective availability within a 500-meter radius of residence
 Quartile 4 (highest) ref ref ref ref ref
 Quartile 3 1.06 (0.87–1.28) 1.04 (0.86–1.27) 1.00 (0.82–1.22) 0.98 (0.80–1.20) 0.98 (0.81–1.20)
 Quartile 2 1.06 (0.85–1.32) 1.04 (0.84–1.30) 0.99 (0.79–1.24) 0.95 (0.76–1.19) 0.92 (0.73–1.15)
 Quartile 1 (lowest) 1.19 (0.95–1.48) 1.15 (0.91–1.44) 0.99 (0.78–1.26) 0.92 (0.72–1.18) 0.97 (0.76–1.24)
p for trend 0.17 0.28 0.93 0.49 0.64
Car users (n = 29,676)
Subjective availability
 Highest ref ref ref ref ref
 Middle–high 0.99 (0.86–1.16) 0.99 (0.85–1.15) 1.01 (0.86–1.17) 0.97 (0.84–1.13) 0.96 (0.83–1.12)
 Middle–low 1.05 (0.87–1.26) 1.02 (0.85–1.23) 1.03 (0.86–1.24) 0.98 (0.81–1.17) 0.92 (0.76–1.11)
 Lowest 1.14 (0.89–1.46) 1.12 (0.87–1.43) 1.13 (0.89–1.45) 1.04 (0.81–1.34) 0.96 (0.75–1.23)
p for trend 0.24 0.39 0.34 0.85 0.49
Objective availability within a 500-meter radius of residence
 Quartile 4 (highest) ref    ref ref
 Quartile 3 0.89 (0.73–1.07) 0.87 (0.72–1.05) 0.87 (0.72–1.05) 0.85 (0.71–1.03) 0.85 (0.70–1.02)
 Quartile 2 0.95 (0.80–1.14) 0.93 (0.78–1.11) 0.93 (0.78–1.11) 0.91 (0.77–1.09) 0.94 (0.79–1.13)
 Quartile 1 (lowest) 0.98 (0.82–1.16) 0.95 (0.80–1.13) 0.95 (0.79–1.13) 0.92 (0.77–1.10) 0.93 (0.78–1.11)
p for trend 0.69 0.94 0.92 0.84 0.95
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval; ref = reference group
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for age and sex
  3. Model 2: Model 1 + adjusted for sociodemographic status (education, annual income, living situation, marital status, and employment status)
  4. Model 3: Model 2 + adjusted for environmental status (public transportation (train and bus) and prefecture of residence)
  5. Model 4: Model 3 + adjusted for walking and going out (walking time and frequency of going out)
  6. Model 5: Model 4 + adjusted for nutritional status (body mass index, frequency of fruit/vegetable and meat/fish intake) and health status (medical treatment for cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, or other, and depressive symptoms)
  7. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001