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Table 1 Basic characteristics of mothers and children from Studies 1 and 2

From: Validation of a measurement instrument for parental child feeding in a low and middle-income country

  Demographic variables Mean (SD) or n (%) p-value
Lampung Yogyakarta
1 District areas    0.01**
- Rural and suburban 72 (46.75%)a 202 (84.87%)  
- Urban 82 (53.25%) 36 (15.13%)  
2 Children’s age (months)    0.05
22–36 months 74 (48.05%) 92 (38.66%)  
37–48 months 50 (32.47%) 75 (31.51%)  
49–60 month 30 (19.48%) 71 (29.83%)  
3 Mothers’ age (years)    0.88
16–25 25 (16.23%) 45 (18.91%)  
26–35 80 (51.95%) 125 (52.52%)  
36–45 47 (30.52%) 65 (27.31%)  
46–55 2 (1.30%) 3 (1.26%)  
>  55 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
4 Mothers’ BMI (IOTF proposed cut-off for Asian adult population)    0.24
<  18.5 17 (11.04%) 14 (5.88%)  
18.5–22.9 55 (35.71%) 89 (37.39%)  
≥ 23–24.9 23 (14.94%) 50 (21.01%)  
25–29.9 43 (27.92%) 65 (27.31%)  
≥ 30 16 (10.39%) 20 (8.40%)  
6 Children’s sex    0.16
Boy 63 (40.91%) 127 (53.36%)  
Girl 91 (59.09%) 111 (46.64%)  
7 Mothers’ ethnicity    0.01**
Java 113 (73.38%) 236 (99.16%)  
Non-Java 41 (26.62%) 2 (0.84%)  
8 Mothers’ education    0.01**
≤ Elementary school 55 (35.71%) 20 (8.40%)  
Graduated from junior high school 52 (33.71%) 78 (32.77%)  
Graduated from senior high school 45 (29.22%) 117 (49.17%)  
Graduated from college/ university 2 (1.30%) 22 (9.24%)  
Others 0 (0%) 1 (0.42%)  
9 Mothers’ occupation    0.04**
Housewife 129 (83.77%) 178 (74.79%)  
Others 25 (16.23%) 60 (25.21%)  
10 Children’s nutritional status (Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia)    0.01**
< −3 SD 12 (7.79%) 2 (0.84%)  
- 3 SD to - 2 SD 13 (8.44%) 8 (3.36%)  
- 2 SD to 2 SD 127 (82.47%) 216 (90.76%)  
>  2 SD 2 (1.30%) 12 (5.04%)  
11 Children’s nutritional status (IOTF)    0.01**
- Thinness 3 25 (16.23%) 9 (3.78%)  
- Thinness 2 19 (12.34%) 19 (7.98%)  
- Thinness 1 37 (24.03%) 62 (26.05%)  
- Normal 69 (44.81%) 128 (53.78%)  
- Overweight 2 (1.30%) 11 (4.62%)  
- Obese 2 (1.30%) 5 (2.10%)  
- Morbid 0 (0%) 4 (1.68%)  
  1. **p < .05
  2. aStudy 1 did not cover a suburban area, percentage only from rural area