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Table 3 Secular trends of physical activity according to intervention (n = 2793) and control (n = 3086) group stratified by sex, age, educational level, and body mass index1

From: Effectiveness of the physical activity intervention program in the PREDIMED-Plus study: a randomized controlled trial

   Baseline 6 months 12 months P2 P3
Total PA (METs min/day)
 Men
 - Intervention Absolute values 263 (0.65) 397 (0.65) 409 (0.65) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.03 (0.99 to 1.08) 1.56 (1.47 to 1.65)   
 - Control Absolute values 294 (0.73) 306 (0.73) 332 (0.73) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.08 (1.03 to 1.14) 1.13 (1.07 to 1.19)   
 Women
 - Intervention Absolute values 195 (0.65) 284 (0.65) 310 (0.66) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.09 (1.04 to 1.15) 1.60 (1.50 to 1.69)   
 - Control Absolute values 205 (0.70) 221 (0.71) 229 (0.71) 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.04 (0.98 to 1.10) 1.12 (1.05 to 1.19)   
Light PA (METs min/day)
 Men
 - Intervention Absolute values 105 (0.68) 124 (0.68) 129 (0.68) < 0.001 0.147
  Relative change Ref. 1.04 (0.97 to 1.10) 1.23 (1.15 to 1.32)   
 - Control Absolute values 107 (0.70) 116 (0.71) 125 (0.71) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.08 (1.02 to 1.15) 1.17 (1.09 to 1.25)   
 Women
 - Intervention Absolute values 98 (0.65) 116 (0.65) 124 (0.65) < 0.001 0.226
  Relative change Ref. 1.07 (1.01 to 1.14) 1.27 (1.19 to 1.36)   
 - Control Absolute values 100 (0.66) 111 (0.66) 116 (0.66) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.04 (0.98 to 1.11) 1.17 (1.09 to 1.25)   
MVPA (METs min/day)
 Men
 - Intervention Absolute values 150 (0.98) 264 (0.98) 273 (0.98) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.03 (0.96 to 1.11) 1.82 (1.66 to 1.98)   
 - Control Absolute values 174 (1.08) 187 (1.08) 196 (1.08) 0.014  
  Relative change Ref. 1.05 (0.97 to 1.14) 1.13 (1.03 to 1.23)   
 Women
 - Intervention Absolute values 103 (1.04) 177 (1.04) 190 (1.04) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.07 (0.99 to 1.17) 1.84 (1.66 to 2.04)   
 - Control Absolute values 113 (1.12) 123 (1.13) 126 (1.12) 0.070  
  Relative change Ref. 1.03 (0.94 to 1.12) 1.12 (1.01 to 1.24)   
Total PA (METs min/day)
 Age, ≤ 65 years
 - Intervention Absolute values 216 (0.66) 337 (0.66) 353 (0.66) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.05 (1.00 to 1.10) 1.64 (1.54 to 1.74)   
 - Control Absolute values 241 (0.72) 261 (0.72) 284 (0.72) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.09 (1.03 to 1.14) 1.18 (1.11 to 1.24)   
 Age, >  65 years
 - Intervention Absolute values 242 (0.64) 340 (0.64) 365 (0.64) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.07 (1.03 to 1.12) 1.51 (1.42 to 1.60)   
   Baseline 6 months 12 months P2 P3
 - Control Absolute values 253 (0.72) 261 (0.72) 270 (0.72) 0.085  
  Relative change Ref. 1.03 (0.98 to 1.09) 1.07 (1.00 to 1.13)   
Light PA (METs min/day)
 Age, ≤ 65 years
 - Intervention Absolute values 95 (0.69) 115 (0.69) 122 (0.70) < 0.001 0.102
  Relative change Ref. 1.06 (1.00 to 1.13) 1.28 (1.20 to 1.37)   
 - Control Absolute values 100 (0.65) 112 (0.65) 116 (0.65) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.03 (0.97 to 1.10) 1.16 (1.09 to 1.24)   
 Age, >  65 years
 - Intervention Absolute values 109 (0.66) 126 (0.66) 132 (0.66) < 0.001 0.269
  Relative change Ref. 1.05 (0.98 to 1.12) 1.21 (1.14 to 1.30)   
 - Control Absolute values 107 (0.68) 115 (0.68) 126 (0.68) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.10 (1.03 to 1.16) 1.18 (1.10 to 1.26)   
MVPA (METs min/day)
 Age, ≤ 65 years
 - Intervention Absolute values 123 (0.95) 222 (0.95) 229 (0.95) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.03 (0.96 to 1.11) 1.87 (1.71 to 2.04)   
 - Control Absolute values 141 (1.06) 162 (1.06) 172 (1.06) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.06 (0.98 to 1.15) 1.22 (1.11 to 1.33)   
 Age, >  65 years
 - Intervention Absolute values 131 (1.06) 216 (1.06) 232 (1.06) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.07 (0.99 to 1.16) 1.78 (1.61 to 1.96)   
 - Control Absolute values 144 (1.17) 145 (1.18) 147 (1.17) 1.00  
  Relative change Ref. 1.02 (0.93 to 1.11) 1.02 (0.93 to 1.13)   
Total PA (METs min/day)
 BMI < 29.9 kg/m2
 - Intervention Absolute values 278 (0.79) 386 (0.79) 405 (0.79) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.05 (0.99 to 1.11) 1.46 (1.35 to 1.56)   
 - Control Absolute values 287 (0.88) 295 (0.88) 313 (0.88) 0.032  
  Relative change Ref. 1.06 (1.00 to 1.13) 1.09 (1.02 to 1.17)   
 BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2
 - Intervention Absolute values 211 (0.57) 322 (0.57) 343 (0.57) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.06 (1.03 to 1.11) 1.62 (1.54 to 1.71)   
 - Control Absolute values 233 (0.63) 250 (0.63) 265 (0.63) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.06 (1.01 to 1.11) 1.14 (1.08 to 1.19)   
Light PA (METs min/day)
 BMI < 29.9 kg/m2
 - Intervention Absolute values 107 (0.87) 124 (0.88) 127 (0.87) < 0.001 0.527
  Relative change Ref. 1.03 (0.94 to 1.12) 1.19 (1.08 to 1.30)   
 - Control Absolute values 104 (0.94) 111 (0.94) 120 (0.94) 0.004  
  Relative change Ref. 1.08 (1.00 to 1.17) 1.16 (1.05 to 1.27)   
 BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2
 - Intervention Absolute values 99 (0.56) 119 (0.56) 126 (0.56) < 0.001 0.073
  Relative change Ref. 1.07 (1.01 to 1.12) 1.27 (1.20 to 1.35)   
 - Control Absolute values 103 (0.59) 114 (0.59) 121 (0.59) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.06 (1.01 to 1.12) 1.17 (1.11 to 1.24)   
MVPA (METs min/day)
 BMI < 29.9 kg/m2
 - Intervention Absolute values 160 (1.18) 251 (1.18) 274 (1.18) < 0.001 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.09 (0.99 to 1.20) 1.72 (1.53 to 1.93)   
 - Control Absolute values 171 (1.41) 189 (1.41) 205 (1.41) 0.003  
  Relative change Ref. 1.08 (0.98 to 1.20) 1.20 (1.07 to 1.34)   
 BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2
 - Intervention Absolute values 115 (0.89) 208 (0.89) 215 (0.89) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.04 (0.97 to 1.11) 1.87 (1.73 to 2.03)   
 - Control Absolute values 133 (0.97) 142 (0.97) 145 (0.97) 0.065  
  Relative change Ref. 1.02 (0.95 to 1.10) 1.09 (1.01 to 1.19)   
Total PA (METs min/day)
 Primary education or less
 - Intervention Absolute values 230 (0.67) 333 (0.67) 361 (0.67) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.09 (1.04 to 1.14) 1.57 (1.48 to 1.67)   
 - Control Absolute values 242 (0.74) 260 (0.74) 273 (0.74) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.05 (1.00 to 1.11) 1.13 (1.06 to 1.20)   
 More than primary education
 - Intervention Absolute values 226 (0.64) 343 (0.64) 356 (0.64) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.04 (0.99 to 1.09) 1.58 (1.49 to 1.67)   
 - Control Absolute values 252 (0.71) 263 (0.71) 282 (0.71) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.07 (1.02 to 1.13) 1.12 (1.06 to 1.18)   
Light PA (METs min/day)
 Primary education or less
 - Intervention Absolute values 105 (0.70) 124 (0.70) 129 (0.70) < 0.001 0.170
  Relative change Ref. 1.04 (0.97 to 1.11) 1.23 (1.14 to 1.32)   
 - Control Absolute values 107 (0.67) 115 (0.67) 123 (0.67) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.06 (1.00 to 1.13) 1.15 (1.07 to 1.23)   
 More than primary education
 - Intervention Absolute values 98 (0.64) 116 (0.64) 125 (0.64) < 0.001 0.355
  Relative change Ref. 1.07 (1.01 to 1.14) 1.27 (1.19 to 1.36)   
 - Control Absolute values 99 (0.71) 112 (0.71) 119 (0.71) < 0.001  
  Relative change Ref. 1.06 (1.00 to 1.13) 1.19 (1.11 to 1.28)   
MVPA (METs min/day)
 Primary education or less
 - Intervention Absolute values 128 (1.03) 208 (1.03) 220 (1.03) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.06 (0.98 to 1.15) 1.73 (1.56 to 1.91)   
 - Control Absolute values 132 (1.17) 144 (1.17) 152 (1.17) 0.008  
  Relative change Ref. 1.05 (0.97 to 1.15) 1.16 (1.05 to 1.27)   
 More than primary education
 - Intervention Absolute values 125 (0.99) 230 (0.99) 240 (0.99) < 0.001 < 0.001
  Relative change Ref. 1.04 (0.97 to 1.12) 1.92 (1.75 to 2.10)   
 - Control Absolute values 154 (1.05) 164 (1.05) 168 (1.05) 0.128  
  Relative change Ref. 1.02 (0.94 to 1.11) 1.09 (1.00 to 1.19)   
  1. 1General estimating equation models adjusted for sex, age, education, smoking, adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet, and baseline BMI were used to analyze the effect of the intervention on secular trends of leisure-time physical activity in comparison with the control group. Leisure-time physical activity data were log-transformed for analysis. Absolute values are presented in mean and standard error (SE) and relative change in exponential beta coefficient (95% confidence interval)
  2. BMI body mass index, MET metabolic equivalent of task, MDS Mediterranean diet score, MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity, PA physical activity
  3. 2p for linear trend within groups
  4. 3p between-group comparison (group*time interaction)