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Table 1 Effect of Targeted Coupons on Purchase Rate for All Foods and Each Food Category

From: Targeted retail coupons influence category-level food purchases over 2-years

Food categoryb Without coupon exposure With coupon exposure Difference In Difference Increase Significancea
Pre Post Pre Post   Pre Post Unexposed Exposed Difference In Difference
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)       
All Foods
  3.08 (3.63) 3.75 (4.59) 11.61 (9.57) 17.34 (13.08) 5.06 *** *** *** *** ***
Less Healthful foods
 Convenience Foods 0.71 (0.93) 0.86 (1.11) 2.67 (2.50) 3.99 (3.42) 1.17 *** *** *** *** ***
 Other added sugar 0.30 (0.46) 0.38 (0.54) 1.12 (1.24) 1.69 (1.64) 0.49 *** *** *** *** ***
 SSB 0.36 (0.55) 0.40 (0.59) 1.31 (1.56) 1.81 (2.00) 0.46 *** *** *** *** ***
 Refined grains 0.28 (0.52) 0.34 (0.53) 1.01 (1.07) 1.52 (1.38) 0.45 *** *** *** *** ***
 Dairy excluding milk 0.22 (0.36) 0.29 (0.51) 0.88 (1.11) 1.37 (1.43) 0.42 *** *** *** *** ***
 Added fat 0.04 (0.07) 0.05 (0.08) 0.13 (0.16) 0.22 (0.22) 0.08 *** *** *** *** ***
More Healthful Foods
 Vegetables 0.33 (0.49) 0.42 (0.60) 1.37 (1.42) 2.08 (1.99) 0.62 *** *** *** *** ***
 Meat poultry and fish 0.42 (0.56) 0.49 (0.65) 1.53 (1.42) 2.20 (1.82) 0.60 *** *** *** *** ***
 Fruit 0.20 (0.31) 0.25 (0.40) 0.82 (0.96) 1.23 (1.35) 0.36 *** *** *** *** ***
 Non-SSB 0.17 (0.29) 0.21 (0.42) 0.61 (0.63) 0.95 (0.92) 0.30 *** *** *** *** ***
 Whole grains 0.03 (0.02) 0.04 (0.03) 0.10 (0.04) 0.17 (0.01) 0.06 *** *** *** *** ***
 Nuts 0.02 (0.06) 0.03 (0.10) 0.08 (0.15) 0.12 (0.22) 0.03 *** *** *** *** ***
  1. Difference in difference analysis. The reference group is households not exposed to coupons. Standard errors were clustered
  2. SD Standard Deviation
  3. *P < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  4. aTest of significance between unexposed group v. exposed group in the pre- and post-campaign periods at each food category
  5. b Food categories are grouped from 52 USDA’S Quarterly Food categories including Fresh/frozen fruits; Canned fruits; Fresh/Frozen dark green vegetables; Fruit juice; Canned dark green vegetables; Fresh/Frozen orange vegetables; Canned orange vegetables; Fresh/Frozen starchy vegetables; Canned starchy vegetables; Fresh/Frozen select nutrient vegetables; Canned select nutrients vegetables; Fresh/Frozen other vegetables; Canned other vegetables; Frozen/Dried Legumes; Canned Legumes; Whole grain bread, rolls, rice, pasta, cereal; Whole grain flour and mixes; Whole grain frozen/ready to cook; Other bread, rolls, rice, pasta, cereal, other flour and mixes; Other frozen/ready to cook grains; Low fat milk; Low fat cheese; Low fat yogurt & other dairy; Regular fat milk; Regular fat cheese; Regular fat yogurt & other dairy; Fresh/frozen low fat meat; Fresh/frozen regular fat meat; Canned meat; Fresh/frozen poultry; Canned poultry; Fresh/frozen fish; Canned fish; Raw nuts and seeds; Processed nuts, seeds and nut butters; Eggs, oils, solid fats, raw sugars; Non-alcoholic non-diet carbonated beverages; Non-carbonated caloric beverages; Water; Ice cream and frozen desserts; Baked good mixes; Packaged sweets/baked goods; Bakery items, ready to eat; Frozen entrees and sides; Canned soups, sauces, prepared foods; Packaged snacks; Ready to cook meals and sides; Ready to eat deli items (hot and cold); Non-alcoholic diet carbonated beverages; Unsweetened coffee and tea; Alcohol