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Table 3 Associations between food preparation behaviors and 5-year relative weight change (n = 12,851)a

From: Influence of food preparation behaviors on 5-year weight change and obesity risk in a French prospective cohort

  Base modelb Adjusted modelc
Women Men Women Men
Meand SEM P-value5 Meand SEM P-value5 Meand SEM P-value5 Meand SEM P-value5
Frequency of meal preparation
 Non-cook (less than once/week or never) 0.90 0.63 0.12 0.46 0.22 0.67 1.28 0.88 0.29 1.15 0.49 0.60
 Occasional cook (less than once/day but at least once/week) 1.12 0.08   0.63 0.14   1.34 0.26   1.13 0.43  
 Regular cook (once or more times/day) 1.51 0.17   0.46 0.16   1.73 0.33   0.88 0.45  
Time for meal preparation
 Low (2–22 min/day in women; 2–13 min/day in men) 1.35 0.13 0.21 0.52 0.18 0.96 0.99 0.51 0.53 1.34 0.29 0.90
 Medium (22–38 min/day in women; 13–30 min/day in men) 1.17 0.13   0.55 0.23   0.99 0.55   1.37 0.28  
 High (39–106 min/day in women; 30–50 min/day in men) 1.04 0.13   0.59 0.18   1.33 0.50   1.45 0.29  
Cooking skills    0.03    0.81    0.26    0.76
 Low 1.44 0.13   0.56 0.19   1.15 0.29   1.06 0.53  
 Medium 1.18 0.12   0.64 0.19   1.50 0.28   1.09 0.52  
 High 0.97 0.13   0.46 0.19   1.47 0.28   1.31 0.52  
Preparation from scratch    < 0.0001    0.05    0.81    0.72
 Low 1.69 0.14   0.93 0.20   1.45 0.30   1.26 0.51  
 Medium 1.16 0.13   0.46 0.20   1.45 0.29   0.96 0.52  
 High 0.87 0.11   0.30 0.18   1.32 0.28   1.16 0.51  
Kitchen equipment    0.05    0.70    0.90    0.42
 Low 1.42 0.12   0.71 0.22   1.40 0.28   1.17 0.54  
 Medium 1.05 0.10   0.51 0.22   1.37 0.18   0.83 0.52  
 High 1.06 0.20   0.49 0.16   1.40 0.34   1.30 0.50  
Enjoyment for food preparation    0.62    0.57    0.94    0.68
 No 1.16 0.22   0.36 0.30   1.31 0.37   0.93 0.59  
 Yes, but not daily meal preparation 1.33 0.17   0.40 0.26   1.40 0.32   0.98 0.58  
 Yes, including daily meal preparation 1.16 0.09   0.63 0.13   1.40 0.26   1.22 0.48  
Willingness to cook better    0.0003    0.003    0.33    0.10
 No 0.83 0.12   0.13 0.18   1.26 0.23   0.83 0.33  
 Yes 1.38 0.09   0.81 0.14   1.46 0.21   1.33 0.32  
Willingness to cook more frequently    0.0002    0.08    0.14    0.73
 No 1.02 0.09   0.43 0.13   1.30 0.26   1.11 0.32  
 Yes 1.62 0.14   0.86 0.21   1.63 0.30   1.23 0.30  
  1. 5P-value represented the overall significance of each variable (Type 3 analysis of effects)
  2. atime spent for food preparation, preparation from scratch cooking skills, kitchen equipment, enjoy cooking, willingness to cook better, willingness to cook more frequently were only assessed in occasional and regular cooks (n = 12,008)
  3. bbase model only included only one indicator of food preparation behaviors
  4. cAdjusted model: base model + adjustment for age, household composition, education, household income, occupation, physical activity level, dieting to lose weight and smoking status
  5. dValues are mean weight change expressed as the percentage of baseline weight (%)
  6. In bold, results considered as significant, i.e. with a p-value < 0.05