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Table 4 Associations between food preparation behaviors and risk of becoming obese after 5 years of follow-up (n = 11,502)a

From: Influence of food preparation behaviors on 5-year weight change and obesity risk in a French prospective cohort

  Base modelb Adjusted modelc
Women Men Women Men
OR 95%CId P-value5 OR 95%CId P-value5 OR 95%CId P-value5 OR 95%CId P-value5
Frequency of meal preparation    0.72    0.67    0.70    0.13
 Non-cook (less than once/week or never) 1.80 0.89–3.65   1.80 0.89–3.65   1.00 0.12–4.13   2.65 0.93–7.94  
 Occasional cook (less than once/day but at least once/week) 1.57 0.84–2.94   1.57 0.84–2.94   0.81 0.44–1.49   2.41 0.90–6.42  
 Regular cook (once or more times/day) 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
Time for meal preparation    0.81    0.94    0.93    0.24
 Low (2–22 min/day in women; 2–13 min/day in men) 0.94 0.64–1.39   1.13 0.55–2.29   1.11 0.40–1.95   2.31 0.70–2.59  
 Medium (22–38 min/day in women; 13–30 min/day in men) 0.88 0.59–1.31   1.03 0.45–2.36   1.06 0.61–1.82   2.82 0.79–1.01  
 High (39–106 min/day in women; 30–50 min/day in men) 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
Cooking skills    0.72    0.08    0.49    0.13
 Low 0.97 0.65–1.43   0.78 0.39–1.55   0.98 0.45–1.36   1.25 0.45–3.47  
 Medium 0.86 0.58–1.27   0.37 0.15–0.89   0.74 0.44–1.25   0.25 0.05–1.24  
 High 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
Preparation from scratch    0.008    0.98    0.02    0.67
 Low 1.69 1.11–2.56   0.98 0.46–2.07   1.32 1.08–2.32   1.36 0.44–4.18  
 Medium 1.02 0.68–1.54   0.93 0.43–2.00   0.95 0.56–1.64   0.75 0.22–2.65  
 High 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
Kitchen equipment    0.25    0.55    0.56    0.31
 Low 1.53 0.88–2.66   0.81 0.38–1.72   1.49 0.70–3.17   2.00 0.68–2.90  
 Medium 1.25 0.72–2.16   0.64 0.29–1.45   1.30 0.62–2.71   0.79 0.20–3.16  
 High 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
Enjoyment for food preparation    0.17    0.85    0.62    0.55
 Yes, including daily meal preparation 1.31 0.75–2.28   1.20 0.46–3.11   1.43 0.60–3.67   1.33 0.28–2.33  
 Yes, but not daily meal preparation 0.86 0.44–1.71   0.97 0.29–3.20   1.49 0.67–3.29   0.69 0.18–2.67  
 No 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
Willingness to cook better    0.12    0.58    0.19    0.67
 Yes 1.32 0.92–1.87   0.84 0.45–1.57   1.38 0.84–2.34   0.81 0.30–2.16  
 No 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
Willingness to cook more frequently    0.08    0.96    0.01    0.54
 Yes 1.35 0.97–1.89   0.98 0.49–1.98   1.83 1.15–2.93   1.43 0.45–4.51  
 No 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
  1. 5P-value represented the overall significance of each variable (Type 3 analysis of effects)
  2. atime spent for food preparation, preparation from scratch cooking skills, kitchen equipment, enjoy cooking, willingness to cook better, willingness to cook more frequently were only assessed in occasional and regular cooks (n = 10,775)
  3. bbase model only included the corresponding indicator of food preparation behaviors
  4. cAdjusted model: base model + adjustment for age, household composition, education, household income, occupation, physical activity level, dieting to lose weight and smoking status
  5. d95% Confidence Interval
  6. In bold, results considered as significant, i.e. with a p-value < 0.05