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Table 3 Results of longitudinal intervention studies

From: Health benefits of electrically-assisted cycling: a systematic review

Study Outcomes Results, mean, SD (95% CI)
Intervention Control Significance, p-value
Pre Post Pre Post
   E-bike   
Cooper, 2018 [32] Max absolute power 157.5 (55.7) 174.3 (70.8)    NC
Men 182.1 (51.5) 206.2 (64.9)    NC
Women 118.9 (38.9) 124.3 (49.0)    NC
   E-bike NE Within groups
De Geus, 2013 [29] Absolute VO2peak      
Men 2.56 (0.35) 2.61 (0.38) 2.62 (0.46) 2.56 (0.35) >.0.025 E-bike, NE
Women 1.94 (0.37) 2.07 (0.41) 1.91 (0.35) 1.94 (0.37) >.0.025 E-bike, NE
Relative VO2peak      
Men 30.2 (4.3) 30.7 (5.6) 30.8 (4.9) 30.2 (4.3) >.0.025 E-bike, NE
Women 30.0 (6.0) 32.3 (6.5) 29.4 (5.1) 30.0 (6.0) >.0.025 E-bike, NE
Absolute max power     
Men 169.5 (19.9) 192.1 (28.7) 173.8 (27.1) 169.5 (19.9) <.0.025 E-bike, >.0.025 NE
Women 130.9 (21.6) 145.9 (24.8) 131.1 (21.7) 130.9 (21.6) <.0.025 E-bike, >.0.025 NE
Relative max power      
Men 2.00 (0.28) 2.30 (0.40) 2.05 (0.35) 2.00 (0.28) <.0.025 E-bike, >.0.025 NE
Women 2.03 (0.41) 2.30 (0.55) 2.04 (0.43) 2.03 (0.41) <.0.025 E-bike, >.0.025 NE
   E-bike CB  
Hochsmann, 2017 [30] Relative VO2peak 35.7 (5.8) 39.3 (8.3) 36.4 (7.3) 38.6 (6.2) 0.327, 1.4 (− 1.4–4.1)+
Relative power output 2.9 (0.6) 3.2 (0.6) 3 (0.5) 3.3 (0.5) 0.995, 0.0 (− 0.1–0.1)+
Resting HR 64.7 (6.5) 65.1 (7.6) 68.8 (8.8) 65.5 (10.6) 0.505, 2.0 (−4.2–8.2) +
HR at 100 W max text 113.4 (9.2) 111.5 (7.7) 113.4 (15.9) 109.2 (14.2) 0.219, 2.4 (− 1.5–6.2) +
SBP at rest 125.9 (13.8) 124.1 (11.3) 127.3 (10.6) 123.1 (12.4) 0.538, 2.0 (−4.5–8.5) +
DBP at rest 82.4 (8.5) 82.1 (8.2) 87.7 (8) 84.5 (8.8) 0.625, 1.2 (−3.9–6.3) +
SBP @ 100 W 174.1 (22.9) 160.3 (21.2) 160.8 (20) 150.4 (18.5) 0.93, −0.4 (−9.4–8.7) +
DBP @ 100 W 86.2 (8.3) 81.9 (6.5) 88 (7.1) 84 (8.1) 0.709, −1.1 (−7.5–5.2) +
   E-bike    
Malnes, 2016 [31] Relative VO2peak 34.1 (31.6, 36.7) 36.5 (34.4, 38.6)    <.001
Relative VO2peak, % gain   7.7 (4.3, 11.1)    
High Fitness   1.5 (−5.6, 8.6)    0.626
Low Fitness   9.6 (5.9, 13.3)    <.05
Peak HR 181 (175, 187) 180 (174, 186)    0.429
   E-bike commute Passive commute   
Page, 2017 [33] QOL (baseline and week 8) 38.00 (3.86) 39.67 (4.47) 29.63 (6.57) 35.71 (5.59) >.05 E-bike, Passive commute
OQL (week 4)   38.84 (4.16)   32.67 (6.08) <.01, ES = 0.28
   E-bike    
Peterman, 2016 [13] Absolute VO2max 2.21 (0.48) 2.39 (0.52)    <.05
MVPA 28.1 (17.5) 29.0 (20.2)    >.05
MVPA10+ 11.7 (14.3) 13.0 (15.2)    >.05
Absolute max power 165.1 (37.1) 189.3 (38.3)    <.05
Fasting glucose 4.99 (0.52) 5.02 (0.47)    >.05
2 h post plasma glucose 5.53 (1.18) 5.03 (0.91)    <.05
HOMA 2.46 (0.95) 2.55 (0.82)    >.05
Total cholesterol 3.90 (0.87) 3.92 (0.79)    >.05
LDL 2.33 (0.8) 2.34 (0.71)    >.05
HDL 1.21 (0.24) 1.18 (0.22)    >.05
Triglycerides 0.95 (0.42) 0.91 (0.27)    >.05
MAP 84.6 (10.5) 83.2 (9.4)    >.05
SBP 110.0 (12.4) 109.1 (10.9)    >.05
DBP 67.7 (8.8) 67.0 (8.0)    >.05
  1. +difference between groups, 95% CI, ES = effect size
  2. Distance (total and weekly) measured in kilometres; Duration (total and weekly) measured in minutes
  3. NE no activity, CB conventional bike
  4. SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, MAP mean arterial blood pressure, QOL quality of life, LDL low density lipo-protein, HDL high density lipo-protein, HOMA measure of insulin sensitivity using homeostatic model assessment, MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity, MVPA10+ moderate to vigorous physical activity of bout of 10-min or greater, W watts
  5. VO2max = highest oxygen value attainable for an individual, VO2peak = the highest oxygen intake value obtained on a specific test
  6. Relative VO2max and VO2peak measured as ml/min/kg; Absolute VO2max and VO2peak measured in l/min Mean energy expenditure measured in kcal/min; Mean heart rate or peak heart rate measured in beats per minute (bpm); Mean absolute max power measured in Watts, Mean relative power measured in watts/kg; glucose, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides measured in mmol/L; blood pressure measured in millimeter of mercury (mmHg), MVPA and MVPA10+ measured in minutes per day