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Table 2 Association between breakfast type and abdominal obesity (WHR ≥ 0.9 (♂); ≥ 0.85 (♀), N = 1351)

From: Association between breakfast composition and abdominal obesity in the Swiss adult population eating breakfast regularly

  Breakfast composition
T1 T2 T3  
OR OR 95% CI OR 95% CI P-Value for trend 2
‘Traditional’ – Refined bread, butter and sweet spread
Crude 1 (ref) 1.40 1.03 1.90 1.72 1.27 2.32 < 0.001**
Model 1 (sex + age) 1 (ref) 1.25 0.87 1.80 0.89 0.61 1.28 0.45
Model 2 (sex + age + physical activity + total energy intake) 1 1 (ref) 1.31 0.91 1.90 0.93 0.64 1.36 0.67
Model 3 (11 covariates) 1 1 (ref) 1.39 0.95 2.03 1.00 0.68 1.48 0.95
Model 4 (16 covariates, including diet quality during the rest of the day – nutrient + food-based approach) 2 1 (ref) 1.32 0.90 1.93 1.00 0.67 1.50 0.99
‘Prudent’ – Fruit, unprocessed and unsweetened cereal flakes, nuts/seeds and yogurt
Crude 1 (ref) 1.48 1.10 1.99 0.99 0.73 1.35 0.96
Model 1 (sex + age) 1 (ref) 0.98 0.68 1.40 0.60 0.41 0.87 0.006*
Model 2 (sex + age + physical activity + total energy intake) 1 1 (ref) 1.00 0.70 1.44 0.59 0.40 0.86 0.005*
Model 3 (11 covariates) 1 1 (ref) 1.01 0.70 1.47 0.60 0.41 0.90 0.011*
Model 4 (16 covariates, including diet quality during the rest of the day – nutrient + food-based approach) 2 1 (ref) 1.09 0.74 1.59 0.72 0.47 1.08 0.10
‘Western’ – Processed breakfast cereals and milk
Crude 1 (ref) 1.24 0.93 1.67 1.00 0.74 1.36 0.98
Model 1 (sex + age) 1 (ref) 1.12 0.79 1.58 1.07 0.74 1.53 0.71
Model 2 (sex + age + physical activity + total energy intake) 1 1 (ref) 1.14 0.80 1.62 1.09 0.75 1.57 0.63
Model 3 (11 covariates) 1 1 (ref) 1.18 0.83 1.70 1.21 0.83 1.77 0.32
Model 4 (16 covariates, including diet quality during the rest of the day – nutrient + food-based approach) 2 1 (ref) 1.10 0.76 1.58 1.16 0.79 1.71 0.45
  1. 1 Sex, age (continuous), physical activity (MET-min per week, continuous, imputed), total energy intake (mean out of two 24-h dietary recalls), alcohol intake (mean intake out of two 24-h dietary recalls), education (university degree
  2. yes/no), food literacy (knowing about the Swiss Food Pyramid: yes/no), smoking (never/past/current), nationality (Swiss/non-Swiss), household status (alone/couple with children/couple without children), season of the first 24-h dietary recall (cold/warm), linguistic region (German/French/Italian)
  3. 2 Idem plus diet quality during the rest of the day (outside breakfast) considering dietary fiber, saturated fat, sodium, and the six-food-component nutritional score (mean intake out of two 24-h dietary recalls)
  4. 3 Differences were assessed using multiple logistic regressions (* P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.001)