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Table 2 Characteristics of the group at each time point including allocation of time use

From: 24-h movement behaviors from infancy to preschool: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with body composition and bone health

Variable Category Age (years)
1 2 3.5 5
n   355 213 231 248
Female n (%)   172 (48.5) 93 (43.7) 107 (46.3) 122 (49.2)
Age (months)   12.2 (0.3) 24.1 (0.2) 41.9 (0.5) 59.7 (0.4)
Height (cm)   75.6 (2.8) 86.2 (3.1) 99.1 (3.8) 109.9 (4.4)
Weight (kg)   9.8 (1.1) 12.5 (1.4) 16.0 (1.8) 19.4 (2.4)
BMI (kg/m2)   17.2 (1.3) 16.8 (1.3) 16.3 (1.2) 16.0 (1.2)
BMI z-score   0.39 (0.83) 0.70 (0.89) 0.61 (0.83) 0.47 (0.81)
Weight statusa n (%) Normal weight 281 (79.2) 140 (65.7) 158 (68.4) 190 (76.6)
Overweight 52 (14.7) 43 (20.2) 45 (19.5) 40 (16.1)
Obese 22 (6.2) 30 (14.1) 28 (12.1) 18 (7.3)
Sleep componentsb Night-time sleep 578 (55) 594 (60) 626 (44) 632 (39)
(minutes) Wake after sleep onset 29 (27) 20 (22) 15 (16) 12 (14)
Day time naps 121 (43) 89 (42) 23 (26) -c
Activity componentsb Sedentary 524 (58) 443 (61) 462 (54) 476 (58)
(minutes) LPA 184 (64) 284 (56) 292 (54) 287 (54)
MVPA 4 (6) 10 (8) 22 (14) 33 (17)
  1. Data presented as mean (SD) except for weight status which is n (%) and only includes those with valid accelerometry data
  2. LPA is light physical activity, MVPA is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
  3. aNormal weight defined as BMI < 85th, overweight as a BMI z-score ≥ 85th but <95th percentile, and obesity as BMI ≥ 95th percentile according to the WHO growth standards [25]
  4. bData presented as arithmetic mean (SD) which is the average number of minutes spent in each category after individualised normalisation to 24 h
  5. cCould not be calculated as no children napped at this age